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  1. This work investigates traffic control via controlled connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) using novel controllers derived from the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. CAV-platoons are modeled as moving bottlenecks impacting the surrounding traffic with their speeds as control inputs. An iterative controller algorithm based on the LQR theory is proposed along with a variant that allows for penalizing abrupt changes in platoon speeds. The controllers use the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) model implemented using an extended cell transmission model (CTM) which considers the capacity drop phenomenon for a realistic representation of traffic in congestion. The impact of various parameters of the proposed controller on the control performance is analyzed. The effectiveness of the proposed traffic control algorithms is tested using a traffic control example and compared with existing proportional-integral (PI) and model predictive control (MPC) controllers from the literature. A case study using the TransModeler traffic microsimulation software is conducted to test the usability of the proposed controller as well as existing controllers in a realistic setting and derive qualitative insights. It is observed that the proposed controller works well in both settings to mitigate the impact of the jam caused by a fixed bottleneck. The computation time required by the controller is also small making it suitable for real-time control.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 9, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Jin, Sheng (Ed.)
    This work considers the sensitivity of commute travel times in US metro areas due to potential changes in commute patterns, for example caused by events such as pandemics. Permanent shifts away from transit and carpooling can add vehicles to congested road networks, increasing travel times. Growth in the number of workers who avoid commuting and work from home instead can offset travel time increases. To estimate these potential impacts, 6-9 years of American Community Survey commute data for 118 metropolitan statistical areas are investigated. For 74 of the metro areas, the average commute travel time is shown to be explainable using only the number of passenger vehicles used for commuting. A universal Bureau of Public Roads model characterizes the sensitivity of each metro area with respect to additional vehicles. The resulting models are then used to determine the change in average travel time for each metro area in scenarios when 25% or 50% of transit and carpool users switch to single occupancy vehicles. Under a 25% mode shift, areas such as San Francisco and New York that are already congested and have high transit ridership may experience round trip travel time increases of 12 minutes (New York) to 20 minutes (San Francisco), costing individual commuters $1065 and $1601 annually in lost time. The travel time increases and corresponding costs can be avoided with an increase in working from home. The main contribution of this work is to provide a model to quantify the potential increase in commute travel times under various behavior changes, that can aid policy making for more efficient commuting. 
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  4. This paper experimentally tests an implementation of a control barrier function (CBF) designed to guarantee a minimum time-gap in car following on an automated vehicle (AV) in live traffic, with a majority occurring on freeways. The CBF supervises a nominal unsafe PID controller on the AV’s velocity. The experimental testing spans two months of driving, of which 1.9 hours of data is collected in which the CBF and nominal controller are active. We find that violations of the guaranteed minimum time-gap are observed, as measured by the vehicle’s on-board radar unit. There are two distinct causes of the violations. First, in multi-lane traffic, Cut-ins from other vehicles represent external disturbances that can immediately violate the minimum guaranteed time gap provided by the CBF. When cut-ins occur, the CBF does eventually return the vehicle to a safe time gap. Second, even when cut-ins do not occur, system model inaccuracies (e.g., sensor error and delay, actuator error and delay) can lead to violations of the minimum time-gap. These violations are small relative to the violations that would have occurred using only the unsafe nominal control law. 
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  5. Event detection is gaining increasing attention in smart cities research. Large-scale mobility data serves as an important tool to uncover the dynamics of urban transportation systems, and more often than not the dataset is incomplete. In this article, we develop a method to detect extreme events in large traffic datasets, and to impute missing data during regular conditions. Specifically, we propose a robust tensor recovery problem to recover low-rank tensors under fiber-sparse corruptions with partial observations, and use it to identify events, and impute missing data under typical conditions. Our approach is scalable to large urban areas, taking full advantage of the spatio-temporal correlations in traffic patterns. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the tensor recovery problem based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework. Compared with existing l 1 norm regularized tensor decomposition methods, our algorithm can exactly recover the values of uncorrupted fibers of a low-rank tensor and find the positions of corrupted fibers under mild conditions. Numerical experiments illustrate that our algorithm can achieve exact recovery and outlier detection even with missing data rates as high as 40% under 5% gross corruption, depending on the tensor size and the Tucker rank of the low rank tensor. Finally, we apply our method on a real traffic dataset corresponding to downtown Nashville, TN and successfully detect the events like severe car crashes, construction lane closures, and other large events that cause significant traffic disruptions. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract This article proposes several advances to sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) as a way to identify large-scale patterns in urban traffic data. The input to our model is traffic counts organized by time and location. Nonnegative matrix factorization additively decomposes this information, organized as a matrix, into a linear sum of temporal signatures. Penalty terms encourage this factorization to concentrate on only a few temporal signatures, with weights which are not too large. Our interest here is to quantify and compare the regularity of traffic behavior, particularly across different broad temporal windows. In addition to the rank and error, we adapt a measure introduced by Hoyer to quantify sparsity in the representation. Combining these, we construct several curves which quantify error as a function of rank (the number of possible signatures) and sparsity; as rank goes up and sparsity goes down, the approximation can be better and the error should decreases. Plots of several such curves corresponding to different time windows leads to a way to compare disorder/order at different time scalewindows. In this paper, we apply our algorithms and procedures to study a taxi traffic dataset from New York City. In this dataset, we find weekly periodicity in the signatures, which allows us an extra framework for identifying outliers as significant deviations from weekly medians. We then apply our seasonal disorder analysis to the New York City traffic data and seasonal (spring, summer, winter, fall) time windows. We do find seasonal differences in traffic order. 
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