skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wu, B."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. This document summarizes the efforts of the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force on “Suppression and (re)generation of quarkonium in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC”, centered around their 2019 and 2022 meetings. It provides a review of existing experimental results and theoretical approaches, including lattice QCD calculations and semiclassical and quantum approaches for the dynamical evolution of quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma as probed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The key ingredients of the transport models are itemized to facilitate comparisons of calculated quantities such as reaction rates, binding energies, and nuclear modification factors. A diagnostic assessment of the various results is attempted and coupled with an outlook for the future. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  2. We demonstrate a method to obtain homogeneous atom-cavity coupling by selecting and keeping 87Rb atoms that are near maximally coupled to the cavity's standing-wave mode. We select atoms by imposing an AC Stark shift on the ground state hyperfine microwave transition frequency with light injected into the cavity. We then induce a spin flip with microwaves that are resonant for atoms that are near maximally coupled to the cavity mode of interest, after which, we use radiation pressure forces to remove from the cavity all the atoms in the initial spin state. Achieving greater homogeneity in the atom-cavity coupling will potentially enhance entanglement generation, intracavity driving of atomic transitions, cavity-optomechanics, and quantum simulations. This approach can easily be extended to other atomic species with microwave or optical transitions. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a catalog of 315 protostellar outflow candidates detected in SiOJ= 5 − 4 in the ALMA-IMF Large Program, observed with ∼2000 au spatial resolution, 0.339 km s−1velocity resolution, and 2–12 mJy beam−1(0.18–0.8 K) sensitivity. We find median outflow masses, momenta, and kinetic energies of ∼0.3M, 4Mkm s−1, and 1045erg, respectively. Median outflow lifetimes are 6000 yr, yielding median mass, momentum, and energy rates ofṀ= 10−4.4Myr−1,Ṗ= 10−3.2Mkm s−1yr−1, andĖ= 1L. We analyze these outflow properties in the aggregate in each field. We find correlations between field-aggregated SiO outflow properties and total mass in cores (∼3σ–5σ), and no correlations above 3σwith clump mass, clump luminosity, or clump luminosity-to-mass ratio. We perform a linear regression analysis and find that the correlation between field-aggregated outflow mass and total clump mass—which has been previously described in the literature—may actually be mediated by the relationship between outflow mass and total mass in cores. We also find that the most massive SiO outflow in each field is typically responsible for only 15%–30% of the total outflow mass (60% upper limit). Our data agree well with the established mechanical force−bolometric luminosity relationship in the literature, and our data extend this relationship up toL≥ 106LandṖ≥ 1Mkm s−1yr−1. Our lack of correlation with clumpL/Mis inconsistent with models of protocluster formation in which all protostars start forming at the same time.

     
    more » « less
  4. We study the problem of synthesizing a controller that maximizes the entropy of a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) subject to a constraint on the expected total reward. Such a controller minimizes the predictability of an agent’s trajectories to an outside observer while guaranteeing the completion of a task expressed by a reward function. Focusing on finite-state controllers (FSCs) with deterministic memory transitions, we show that the maximum entropy of a POMDP is lower bounded by the maximum entropy of the parameteric Markov chain (pMC) induced by such FSCs. This relationship allows us to recast the entropy maximization problem as a so-called parameter synthesis problem for the induced pMC. We then present an algorithm to synthesize an FSC that locally maximizes the entropy of a POMDP over FSCs with the same number of memory states. In a numerical example, we highlight the benefit of using an entropy-maximizing FSC compared with an FSC that simply finds a feasible policy for accomplishing a task. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    We provide a quantitative analysis of the spontaneous recombination time in the quantum well (QW) of a transistor laser (TL) that shows that owing to the heavy doping in the base of the transistor, Auger recombination is responsible for the short carrier lifetime and low quantum efficiency of the device. By taking advantage of the QW location close to the collector in the TL three-terminal configuration, we devise a new turn-off mechanism that results in quick electron tunneling through the QW barrier by applying a high base-collector reverse bias to deplete the QW and suppress further recombination. For practical base-collector reverse bias, tunneling time from the QW is on the order of 10th of picosecond, which with a lighter base doping density would simultaneously achieve a fast TL turn-off response, while reducing Auger recombination. 
    more » « less
  6. null (Ed.)
  7. We develop a new boundary integral method for solving the coupled electro- and hydrodynamics of vesicle suspensions in Stokes flow. This relies on a well-conditioned boundary integral equation formulation for the leaky-dielectric model describing the electric response of the vesicles and an efficient numerical solver capable of handling highly deflated vesicles. Our method is applied to explore vesicle electrohydrodynamics in three cases. First, we study the classical prolate–oblate–prolate transition dynamics observed upon application of a uniform DC electric field. We discover that, in contrast to the squaring previously found with nearly spherical vesicles, highly deflated vesicles tend to form buds. Second, we illustrate the capabilities of the method by quantifying the electrorheology of a dilute vesicle suspension. Finally, we investigate the pairwise interactions of vesicles and find three different responses when the key parameters are varied: (i) chain formation, where they self-assemble to form a chain that is aligned along the field direction; (ii) circulatory motion, where they rotate about each other; (iii) oscillatory motion, where they form a chain but oscillate about each other. The last two are unique to vesicles and are not observed in the case of other soft particle suspensions such as drops. 
    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    Sawtooth Wave Adiabatic Passage (SWAP) laser cooling was recently demonstrated using a narrow-linewidth single-photon optical transition in atomic strontium and may prove useful for cooling other atoms and molecules. However, many atoms and molecules lack the appropriate narrow optical transition. Here we use such an atom,87Rb, to demonstrate that two-photon Raman transitions with arbitrarily-tunable linewidths can be used to achieve 1D SWAP cooling without significantly populating the intermediate excited state. Unlike SWAP cooling on a narrow transition, Raman SWAP cooling allows for a final 1D temperature well below the Doppler cooling limit (here, 25 times lower); and the effective excited state decay rate can be modified in time, presenting another degree of freedom during the cooling process. We also develop a generic model for Raman Landau–Zener transitions in the presence of small residual free-space scattering for future applications of SWAP cooling in other atoms or molecules.

     
    more » « less
  9. We present the first data release of the ALMA-IMF Large Program, which covers the 12m-array continuum calibration and imaging. The ALMA-IMF Large Program is a survey of fifteen dense molecular cloud regions spanning a range of evolutionary stages that aims to measure the core mass function. We describe the data acquisition and calibration done by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory and the subsequent calibration and imaging we performed. The image products are combinations of multiple 12 m array configurations created from a selection of the observed bandwidth using multi-term, multi-frequency synthesis imaging and deconvolution. The data products are self-calibrated and exhibit substantial noise improvements over the images produced from the delivered data. We compare different choices of continuum selection, calibration parameters, and image weighting parameters, demonstrating the utility and necessity of our additional processing work. Two variants of continuum selection are used and will be distributed: the “best-sensitivity” ( bsens ) data, which include the full bandwidth, including bright emission lines that contaminate the continuum, and “cleanest” ( cleanest ), which select portions of the spectrum that are unaffected by line emission. We present a preliminary analysis of the spectral indices of the continuum data, showing that the ALMA products are able to clearly distinguish free-free emission from dust emission, and that in some cases we are able to identify optically thick emission sources. The data products are made public with this release. 
    more » « less
  10. Aims. Thanks to the high angular resolution, sensitivity, image fidelity, and frequency coverage of ALMA, we aim to improve our understanding of star formation. One of the breakthroughs expected from ALMA, which is the basis of our Cycle 5 ALMA-IMF Large Program, is the question of the origin of the initial mass function (IMF) of stars. Here we present the ALMA-IMF protocluster selection, first results, and scientific prospects. Methods. ALMA-IMF imaged a total noncontiguous area of ~53 pc 2 , covering extreme, nearby protoclusters of the Milky Way. We observed 15 massive (2.5 −33 × 10 3 M ⊙ ), nearby (2−5.5 kpc) protoclusters that were selected to span relevant early protocluster evolutionary stages. Our 1.3 and 3 mm observations provide continuum images that are homogeneously sensitive to point-like cores with masses of ~0.2 M ⊙ and ~0.6 M ⊙ , respectively, with a matched spatial resolution of ~2000 au across the sample at both wavelengths. Moreover, with the broad spectral coverage provided by ALMA, we detect lines that probe the ionized and molecular gas, as well as complex molecules. Taken together, these data probe the protocluster structure, kinematics, chemistry, and feedback over scales from clouds to filaments to cores. Results. We classify ALMA-IMF protoclusters as Young (six protoclusters), Intermediate (five protoclusters), or Evolved (four proto-clusters) based on the amount of dense gas in the cloud that has potentially been impacted by H  II region(s). The ALMA-IMF catalog contains ~700 cores that span a mass range of ~0.15 M ⊙ to ~250 M ⊙ at a typical size of ~2100 au. We show that this core sample has no significant distance bias and can be used to build core mass functions (CMFs) at similar physical scales. Significant gas motions, which we highlight here in the G353.41 region, are traced down to core scales and can be used to look for inflowing gas streamers and to quantify the impact of the possible associated core mass growth on the shape of the CMF with time. Our first analysis does not reveal any significant evolution of the matter concentration from clouds to cores (i.e., from 1 pc to 0.01 pc scales) or from the youngest to more evolved protoclusters, indicating that cloud dynamical evolution and stellar feedback have for the moment only had a slight effect on the structure of high-density gas in our sample. Furthermore, the first-look analysis of the line richness toward bright cores indicates that the survey encompasses several tens of hot cores, of which we highlight the most massive in the G351.77 cloud. Their homogeneous characterization can be used to constrain the emerging molecular complexity in protostars of high to intermediate masses. Conclusions. The ALMA-IMF Large Program is uniquely designed to transform our understanding of the IMF origin, taking the effects of cloud characteristics and evolution into account. It will provide the community with an unprecedented database with a high legacy value for protocluster clouds, filaments, cores, hot cores, outflows, inflows, and stellar clusters studies. 
    more » « less