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Creators/Authors contains: "Wu, Chung-Tse Michael"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  2. Abstract Recent advancement in digital coding metasurfaces incorporating spatial and temporal modulation has enabled simultaneous control of electromagnetic (EM) waves in both space and frequency domains by manipulating incident EM waves in a transmissive or reflective fashion, resulting in time-reversal asymmetry. Here we show in theory and experiment that a digitally space-time-coded metamaterial (MTM) antenna with spatiotemporal modulation at its unit cell level can be regarded as a radiating counterpart of such digital metasurface, which will enable nonreciprocal EM wave transmission and reception via surface-to-leaky-wave transformation and harmonic frequency generation. Operating in the fast wave (radiation) region, the space-time-coded MTM antenna is tailored in a way such that the propagation constant of each programmable unit cell embedded with varactor diodes can toggle between positive and negative phases, which is done through providing digital sequences by using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Owing to the time-varying coding sequence, harmonic frequencies are generated with different main beam directions. Furthermore, the space time modulation of the digitally coded MTM antenna allows for nonreciprocal transmission and reception of EM waves by breaking the time-reversal symmetry, which may enable many applications, such as simultaneous transmitting and receiving, unidirectional transmission, radar sensing, and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) beamformer. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Novel transmission schemes, enabled by recent advances in the fields of metamaterial (MTM), leaky-wave antenna (LWA) and directional modulation, are proposed for enhancing the physical layer (PHY) security. MTM-LWAs, which offer compact, integrated, and cost-effective alternatives to the classic phased-array architectures, are particularly of interest for emerging wireless communication systems including Internet-of-Things (IoT). The proposed secure schemes are devised to accomplish the functionalities of directional modulation (DM) transmitters for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and non-contiguous (NC) OFDM transmissions, while enjoying the implementation benefits of MTM-LWAs. Specifically, transmitter architectures based on the idea of time-modulated MTM-LWA have been put forth as a promising solution for PHY security for the first time. The PHY security for the proposed schemes are investigated from the point of view of both passive and active attacks where an adversary aims to decode secret information and feed spurious data to the legitimate receiver, respectively. Numerical simulations reveal that even when the adversary employs sophisticated state-of-the-art deep learning based attacks, the proposed transmission schemes are resistant to these attacks and reliably guarantee system security. 
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  4. Abstract

    This article presents a nonlinear leaky wave antenna (LWA) with frequency dependent parametric radiation based on a fundamentally slow‐wave transmission line (TL) structure. Unlike a conventional LWA that radiates at the excitation frequency, the radiation for the proposed travelling wave structure relies on the parametric frequencies based on the injected pump signals. The proposed nonlinear fundamentally slow wave structure utilizes a periodic sharply bend TL loaded by varactor diodes as nonlinear elements. By utilizing then = −1 spatial harmonic, the fundamentally slow wave structure can enter the leaky wave region at higher frequencies, where the parametric radiation results from the bifurcation of the injected pump signals. Such TL‐based nonlinear LWA reduces the design complexity and fabrication difficulty. The resulting parametric frequency radiation can be used for beam steering, which provides additional degree of design freedom.

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