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Creators/Authors contains: "Wu, Fan O."

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  1. We show that in highly multimoded nonlinear photonic systems, the optical thermodynamic pressures emerging from different species of the optical field obey Dalton’s law of partial pressures. In multimode settings, the optical thermodynamic pressure is defined as the conjugate to the extensive variable associated with the system’s total number of modes and is directly related to the actual electrodynamic radiation forces exerted at the physical boundaries of the system. Here, we extend this notion to photonic configuration supporting different species of the optical field. Under thermal equilibrium conditions, we formally derive an equation that establishes a direct link between the partial thermodynamic pressures and the electrodynamic radiation pressures exerted by each polarization species. Our theoretical framework provides a straightforward approach for quantifying the total radiation pressures through the system’s thermodynamic variables without invoking the Maxwell stress tensor formalism. In essence, we show that the total electrodynamic pressure in such arrangements can be obtained in an effortless manner from initial excitation conditions, thus avoiding time-consuming simulations of the utterly complex multimode dynamics. To illustrate the validity of our results, we carry out numerical simulations in multimoded nonlinear optical structures supporting two polarization species and demonstrate excellent agreement with the Maxwell stress tensor method.

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  2. We study the coherence characteristics of light propagating in nonlinear graded-index (GRIN) multimode fibers after attaining optical thermal equilibrium conditions. The role of optical temperature on the spatial mutual coherence function and the associated correlation area is systematically investigated. In this respect, we show that the coherence properties of the field at the output of a multimode nonlinear fiber can be controlled through its optical thermodynamic properties.

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  3. We investigate the statistical mechanics of the photonic Ablowitz–Ladik lattice, the integrable version of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this regard, we demonstrate that in the presence of perturbations, the complex response of this system can be accurately captured within the framework of optical thermodynamics. Along these lines, we shed light on the true relevance of chaos in the thermalization of the Ablowitz–Ladik system. Our results indicate that when linear and nonlinear perturbations are incorporated, this weakly nonlinear lattice will thermalize into a proper Rayleigh–Jeans distribution with a well-defined temperature and chemical potential, in spite of the fact that the underlying nonlinearity is non-local and hence does not have a multi-wave mixing representation. This result illustrates that in the supermode basis, a non-local and non-Hermitian nonlinearity can in fact properly thermalize this periodic array in the presence of two quasi-conserved quantities.

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  4. Abstract

    Recent experimental studies in heavily multimoded nonlinear optical systems have demonstrated that the optical power evolves towards a Rayleigh–Jeans (RJ) equilibrium state. To interpret these results, the notion of wave turbulence founded on four-wave mixing models has been invoked. Quite recently, a different paradigm for dealing with this class of problems has emerged based on thermodynamic principles. In this formalism, the RJ distribution arises solely because of ergodicity. This suggests that the RJ distribution has a more general origin than was earlier thought. Here, we verify this universality hypothesis by investigating various nonlinear light-matter coupling effects in physically accessible multimode platforms. In all cases, we find that the system evolves towards a RJ equilibrium—even when the wave-mixing paradigm completely fails. These observations, not only support a thermodynamic/probabilistic interpretation of these results, but also provide the foundations to expand this thermodynamic formalism along other major disciplines in physics.

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  5. Abstract

    The chaotic evolution resulting from the interplay between topology and nonlinearity in photonic systems generally forbids the sustainability of optical currents. Here, we systematically explore the nonlinear evolution dynamics in topological photonic lattices within the framework of optical thermodynamics. By considering an archetypical two-dimensional Haldane photonic lattice, we discover several prethermal states beyond the topological phase transition point and a stable global equilibrium response, associated with a specific optical temperature and chemical potential. Along these lines, we provide a consistent thermodynamic methodology for both controlling and maximizing the unidirectional power flow in the topological edge states. This can be achieved by either employing cross-phase interactions between two subsystems or by exploiting self-heating effects in disordered or Floquet topological lattices. Our results indicate that photonic topological systems can in fact support robust photon transport processes even under the extreme complexity introduced by nonlinearity, an important feature for contemporary topological applications in photonics.

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