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  1. We present magnetic characterization, charge resistivity, and optical photoluminescence measurements on amorphous yttrium iron oxide thin films (a-Y–Fe–O), with supporting comparisons to amorphous germanium (a-Ge) films. We measured magnetic properties with both SQUID magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry. These results not only confirm that a-Y–Fe–O is a disordered magnetic material with strong predominantly antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and a high degree of frustration, but also that it is best understood electrically as a disordered semiconductor. As with amorphous germanium, a-Y–Fe–O obeys expectations for variable-range hopping through localized electron states over a wide range of temperature. We also clarify the consequences of charge transport through such a semiconducting medium for non-local voltage measurements intended to probe spin transport in nominally insulating magnetic materials. We further compare non-local resistance measurements made with “quasi-dc” automated current reversal to ac measurements made with a lock-in amplifier. These show that the “quasi-dc” measurement has an effective ac current excitation with frequency up to approximately 22 Hz, and that this effective ac excitation can cause artifacts in these measurements including incorrect sign of the non-local resistance. This comprehensive investigation of non-local resistance measurements in a-Y–Fe–O shows no evidence of spin transport on micrometer length scales, which is contrary to our original work, and in line with more recent investigations by other groups. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2024
  2. Abstract

    316L stainless steel (316L SS) is a flagship material for structural applications in corrosive environments, having been extensively studied for decades for its favorable balance between mechanical and corrosion properties. More recently, 316L SS has also proven to have excellent printability when parts are produced with additive manufacturing techniques, notably laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Because of the harsh thermo-mechanical cycles experienced during rapid solidification and cooling, LPBF processing tends to generate unique microstructures. Strong heterogeneities can be found inside grains, including trapped elements, nano-inclusions, and a high density of dislocations that form the so-called cellular structure. Interestingly, LPBF 316L SS not only exhibits better mechanical properties than its conventionally processed counterpart, but it also usually offers much higher resistance to pitting in chloride solutions. Unfortunately, the complexity of the LPBF microstructures, in addition to process-induced defects, such as porosity and surface roughness, have slowed progress toward linking specific microstructural features to corrosion susceptibility and complicated the development of calibrated simulations of pitting phenomena. The first part of this article is dedicated to an in-depth review of the microstructures found in LPBF 316L SS and their potential effects on the corrosion properties, with an emphasis on pitting resistance. The second part offers a perspective of some relevant modeling techniques available to simulate the corrosion of LPBF 316L SS, including current challenges that should be overcome.

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  3. Bendick, R. (Ed.)
    The Qaidam Basin in the core area of arid Inner Asia has been considered undergoing continuous aridification over the Cenozoic. However, the Qaidam Basin is marked with expanded lacustrine sedimentation during the Oligocene, which contrasts with the fluvial or deltaic facies stratigraphically below (Eocene) and above (Miocene-present). The Oligocene lacustrine expansion challenges the idea of persistent aridification. To solve the conundrum, we reconstruct a long-term compound-specific hydrogen isotope (δ2H) record from sedimentary leaf wax n-alkanes to evaluate the paleoclimatic context before, during, and after the Oligocene lacustrine expansion. The δ2H results reveal three shifts at ca. 40 Ma, 34 Ma, and 24 Ma. The leaf wax δ2H values range from −176.8to −166.7from 51 to 40 Ma, followed by an abrupt increase of 23.9at 40 Ma. We interpret this rapid increase as enhanced aridification due to the coeval retreat of the Paratethys Sea from the region. At 34 Ma, the δ2H plunges across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). Post-EOT δ2H values are the lowest, vary with high amplitude from −187.1to −153.2, and are associated with the lacustrine facies expansion, indicating a wetter climate. By compiling the regional isotopic proxy studies, we observe the contrasting patterns in paleohydrology conditions since the EOT: the relaxation of aridity in the westerlies region versus the enhanced aridification in the East Asian summer monsoon region. We interpret that the west-east contrasting patterns represent the different climatic responses to global cooling: wetting in the west as a result of the enhanced moisture transport via westerlies replacing the subtropical high, and drying in the east due to the reduction in moisture content associated with weakening East Asian summer monsoon. Wetting in Inner Asia is synchronous with cooling in the ocean (North Atlantic) and on land (Xining Basin). Since 24 Ma, δ2H increases in response to warming during the latest Oligocene to the early Miocene when the subtropical high re-occupied Inner Asia, causing the aridity. This study reveals a dynamic climate in Inner Asia with different mechanisms responding to global change. 
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  4. Singer, B. ; Jiang, G. (Ed.)
    The Qaidam Basin marks a crucial boundary between the Westerlies and the Asian summer monsoons. Previous studies in the Qaidam Basin have advanced our knowledge of the paleoclimate over glacial to interglacial cycles. However, our understanding of the paleoclimatic sensitivity of the Qaidam Basin to the relative strength of these two climatic driving forces remains limited due to the lack of regional paleoclimatic reconstructions. The Qaidam Basin is proposed as a regional and global eolian dust source during the glacial periods, during which a cold, dry climate is associated with the equatorward shift of the jet stream. On the contrary, paleoshoreline records suggest that a highstand lake stage prevailed in late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) and lasted until 15 ka. To address this conundrum, we have applied an integrated approach to reconstructing the regional paleoclimatic history by combining compound-specific isotope analysis, lake temperature reconstruction, and numerical modeling. Our results show varying paleoclimate associated with the dynamic climate boundary since 45 ka: (1) a wet climate during late MIS 3, when the Asian summer monsoons are strengthened under high summer insolation and penetrate further into Central Asia; (2) a general cold, dry but wetter than at present climate in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), when the Asian summer monsoons retreat and the Westerlies become dominant; and (3) three short periods of extreme aridity corresponding to the Younger Dryas and Heinrich 2 and 4 events, when the normal moisture transport via the Westerlies and Asian summer monsoons is interrupted. The numerical modeling supports an increase in the effective precipitation during the LGM due to reduced evaporation under low summer insolation. These results suggest that the Westerlies and Asian summer monsoons alternately controlled the climate in the Qaidam Basin in response to precessional forcing during the late Pleistocene. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract

    We investigated the interaction between surface conditions and precipitating convection by comparing the Amazon River against the surrounding forest. Despite similar synoptic conditions within a few tens of kilometers, the river surface is substantially cooler than the surrounding forest during the day and warmer at night. We analyzed 20 years of high‐resolution satellite precipitation data and confirmed previous findings of daytime rainfall reduction over the river for the whole Amazon Basin. The percentage reduction is strongest during the dry‐to‐wet transition season. In addition, the percentage reduction of individual tributary is significantly correlated with the Laplacian of surface temperature, which causes thermally driven surface divergence and suppresses local convection. Additionally, nighttime rainfall is enhanced over tributaries near the Atlantic coast during the wet season. A regional climate model then simulates the local rainfall anomalies associated with the river. Above the river, moisture diverges near the surface and converges above the surface before the daytime rainfall, partially driven by the horizontal gradient of humidity. Unlike the river, moisture convergence within the boundary layer is more critical for the rainfall above the forest region. Our studies suggest that strong thermal contrast can be important in deriving heterogeneous convection in moist tropical regions.

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  7. Abstract

    This study presents an improved approach to common‐conversion point stacking of converted body waves that incorporates scattering kernels, accurate and efficient measurement of stack uncertainties, and an alternative method for estimating free surface seismic velocities. To better separate waveforms into thePandSVcomponents to calculate receiver functions, we developed an alternative method to measure near‐surface compressional and shear wave velocities from particle motions. To more accurately reflect converted phase scattering kernels in the common‐conversion point stack, we defined new weighting functions to project receiver function amplitudes only to locations where sensitivities to horizontal discontinuities are high. To better quantify stack uncertainties, we derived an expression for the standard deviation of the stack amplitude that is more efficient than bootstrapping and can be used for any problem requiring the standard deviation of a weighted average. We tested these improved methods onSpphase data from the Anatolian region, using multiple band‐pass filters to image velocity gradients of varying depth extents. Common conversion point stacks of 23,787Spreceiver functions demonstrate that the new weighting functions produce clearer and more continuous mantle phases, compared to previous approaches. The stacks reveal a positive velocity gradient at 80–150 km depth that is consistent with the base of an asthenospheric low‐velocity layer. This feature is particularly strong in stacks of longer period data, indicating it represents a gradual velocity gradient. At shorter periods, a lithosphere‐asthenosphere boundary phase is observed at 60–90 km depth, marking the top of the low‐velocity layer.

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