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  1. Normative learning theories dictate that we should preferentially attend to informative sources, but only up to the point that our limited learning systems can process their content. Humans, including infants, show this predicted strategic deployment of attention. Here we demonstrate that rhesus monkeys, much like humans, attend to events of moderate surprisingness over both more and less surprising events. They do this in the absence of any specific goal or contingent reward, indicating that the behavioral pattern is spontaneous. We suggest this U-shaped attentional preference represents an evolutionarily preserved strategy for guiding intelligent organisms toward material that is maximally usefulmore »for learning.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  2. Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7 Si 5 is a rare example of a correlated metal in which the Mn moments form a kagome lattice. The absence of magnetic ordering to the lowest temperatures suggests that geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions may lead to strong magnetic fluctuations. We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7 Si 5 , finding that phonon scattering dominates for energies from ∼20–50 meV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations of the phonon dispersions and densities of states, and as well reproduce the measured specific heat.more »A weak magnetic signal was detected at energies less than ∼10 meV, present only at the lowest temperatures. The magnetic signal is broad and quasielastic, as expected for metallic paramagnets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 12, 2022
  3. Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7 Si 5 is a rare example of a correlated metal in which the Mn moments form a kagome lattice. The absence of magnetic ordering to the lowest temperatures suggests that geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions may lead to strong magnetic fluctuations. We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7 Si 5 , finding that phonon scattering dominates for energies from ∼20–50 meV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations of the phonon dispersions and densities of states, and as well reproduce the measured specific heat.more »A weak magnetic signal was detected at energies less than ∼10 meV, present only at the lowest temperatures. The magnetic signal is broad and quasielastic, as expected for metallic paramagnets« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 12, 2022
  4. Autonomous vehicle-following systems, including Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), improve safety, efficiency, and string stability for a vehicle (the ego vehicle) following its leading vehicle. The ego vehicle senses or receives information, such as the position, velocity, acceleration, or even intention, of the leading vehicle and controls its own behavior. However, it has been shown that sensors and wireless channels are vulnerable to security attacks, and attackers can modify data sensed from sensors or received from other vehicles. To address this problem, in this paper, we design three types of stealthy attacks on ACC ormore »CACC inputs, where the stealthy attacks can deceive a rule-based detection approach and impede system properties (collision-freeness and vehicle-following distance). We then develop two deep-learning models, a predictor-based model and an encoder-decoder-based model to detect the attacks, where the two models do not need attacker models for training. The experimental results demonstrate the respective strengths of different models and lead to a methodology for the design of learning-based intrusion detection approaches.« less
  5. Kong, S.C. (Ed.)
  6. Kong, S.C. (Ed.)
    This work aims to help high school STEM teachers integrate computational thinking (CT) into their classrooms by engaging teachers as curriculum co-designers. K-12 teachers who are not trained in computer science may not see the value of CT in STEM classrooms and how to engage their students in computational practices that reflect the practices of STEM professionals. To this end, we developed a 4-week professional development workshop for eight science and mathematics high school teachers to co-design computationally enhanced curriculum with our team of researchers. The workshop first provided an introduction to computational practices and tools for STEM education. Then,more »teachers engaged in co-design to enhance their science and mathematics curricula with computational practices in STEM. Data from surveys and interviews showed that teachers learned about computational thinking, computational tools, coding, and the value of collaboration after the professional development. Further, they were able to integrate multiple computational tools that engage their students in CT-STEM practices. These findings suggest that teachers can learn to use computational practices and tools through workshops, and that teachers collaborating with researchers in co-design to develop computational enhanced STEM curriculum may be a powerful way to engage students and teachers with CT in K-12 classrooms.« less