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  1. Abstract

    The most direct approach for characterizing the quantum dynamics of a strongly interacting system is to measure the time evolution of its full many-body state. Despite the conceptual simplicity of this approach, it quickly becomes intractable as the system size grows. An alternate approach is to think of the many-body dynamics as generating noise, which can be measured by the decoherence of a probe qubit. Here we investigate what the decoherence dynamics of such a probe tells us about the many-body system. In particular, we utilize optically addressable probe spins to experimentally characterize both static and dynamical properties of strongly interacting magnetic dipoles. Our experimental platform consists of two types of spin defects in nitrogen delta-doped diamond: nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, which we use as probe spins, and a many-body ensemble of substitutional nitrogen impurities. We demonstrate that the many-body system’s dimensionality, dynamics and disorder are naturally encoded in the probe spins’ decoherence profile. Furthermore, we obtain direct control over the spectral properties of the many-body system, with potential applications in quantum sensing and simulation.

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  2. Providing students with hands-on construction experiences enables them to apply conceptual knowledge to practical applications, but the high costs associated with this form of learning limit access to it. Therefore, this paper explores the use of augmented reality (AR) to enable students in a conventional classroom or lab setting to interact with virtual objects similar to how they would if they were physically constructing building components. More specifically, the authors tasked student participants with virtually constructing a wood-framed wall through AR with a Microsoft HoloLens. Participants were video-recorded and their behaviors were analyzed. Subsequently, observed behaviors in AR were analyzed and compared to expected behaviors in the physical environment. It was observed that students performing the tasks tended to mimic behaviors found in the physical environment in how they managed the virtual materials, leveraged physical tools in conjunction with virtual materials, and in their ability to recognize and fix mistakes. Some of the finer interactions observed with the virtual materials were found to be unique to the virtual environment, such as moving objects from a distance. Overall, these findings contribute to the understanding of how AR may be leveraged in classrooms to provide learning experiences that yield similar outcomes to those provided in more resource-intensive physical construction site environments. 
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  3. Abstract In this paper, we review scientific opportunities and challenges related to detection and reconstruction of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) signatures in liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detectors. LArTPC neutrino detectors designed for performing precise long-baseline oscillation measurements with GeV-scale accelerator neutrino beams also have unique sensitivity to a range of physics and astrophysics signatures via detection of event features at and below the few tens of MeV range. In addition, low-energy signatures are an integral part of GeV-scale accelerator neutrino interaction final-states, and their reconstruction can enhance the oscillation physics sensitivities of LArTPC experiments. New physics signals from accelerator and natural sources also generate diverse signatures in the low-energy range, and reconstruction of these signatures can increase the breadth of Beyond the Standard Model scenarios accessible in LArTPC-based searches. A variety of experimental and theory-related challenges remain to realizing this full range of potential benefits. Neutrino interaction cross-sections and other nuclear physics processes in argon relevant to sub-hundred-MeV LArTPC signatures are poorly understood, and improved theory and experimental measurements are needed; pion decay-at-rest sources and charged particle and neutron test beams are ideal facilities for improving this understanding. There are specific calibration needs in the low-energy range, as well as specific needs for control and understanding of radiological and cosmogenic backgrounds. Low-energy signatures, whether steady-state or part of a supernova burst or larger GeV-scale event topology, have specific triggering, DAQ and reconstruction requirements that must be addressed outside the scope of conventional GeV-scale data collection and analysis pathways. Novel concepts for future LArTPC technology that enhance low-energy capabilities should also be explored to help address these challenges. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Galaxy clusters identified via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZ) are a key ingredient in multi-wavelength cluster cosmology. We present and compare three methods of cluster identification: the standard Matched Filter (MF) method in SZ cluster finding, a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), and a ‘combined’ identifier. We apply the methods to simulated millimeter maps for several observing frequencies for a survey similar to SPT-3G, the third-generation camera for the South Pole Telescope. The MF requires image pre-processing to remove point sources and a model for the noise, while the CNN requires very little pre-processing of images. Additionally, the CNN requires tuning of hyperparameters in the model and takes cutout images of the sky as input, identifying the cutout as cluster-containing or not. We compare differences in purity and completeness. The MF signal-to-noise ratio depends on both mass and redshift. Our CNN, trained for a given mass threshold, captures a different set of clusters than the MF, some with SNR below the MF detection threshold. However, the CNN tends to mis-classify cutouts whose clusters are located near the edge of the cutout, which can be mitigated with staggered cutouts. We leverage the complementarity of the two methods, combining the scores from each method for identification. The purity and completeness are both 0.61 for MF, and 0.59 and 0.61 for CNN. The combined method yields 0.60 and 0.77, a significant increase for completeness with a modest decrease in purity. We advocate for combined methods that increase the confidence of many low signal-to-noise clusters. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024