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  1. Fremyella diplosiphon is an ideal third-generation biofuel source due to its ability to produce transesterified lipids. While nanofer 25s zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs) improve lipid production, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular defense can be catastrophic to the organism. In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid on nZVI and UV-induced stress in F. diplosiphon strain B481-SD was investigated, and lipid profiles in the combination regimen of nZVIs and ascorbic acid compared. Comparison of F. diplosiphon growth in BG11 media amended with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mM ascorbic acid indicated 6 mM to be optimal for the growth of B481-SD. Further, growth in 6 mM ascorbic acid combined with 3.2 mg/L nZVIs was significantly higher when compared to the combination regimen of 12.8 and 51.2 mg/L of nZVIs and 6 mM ascorbic acid. The reversal effect of UV-B radiation for 30 min and 1 h indicated that ascorbic acid restored B481-SD growth. Transesterified lipids characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry indicated C16 hexadecanoate to be the most abundant fatty acid methyl ester in the combination regimen of 6 mM ascorbic acid and 12.8 mg/L nZVI-treated F. diplosiphon. These findings were supported by microscopic observations in which cellular degradation was observed in B481-SD cells treated with 6 mM ascorbic acid and 12.8 mg/L nZVIs. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid counteracts the damaging effect of oxidative stress produced by nZVIs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024