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  1. Living organisms have evolved, over billions of years, to develop specialized biostructures with switchable adhesion for various purposes including climbing, perching, preying, sensing, and protecting. According to adhesion mechanisms, switchable adhesives can be divided into four categories: mechanically-based adhesion, liquid-mediated adhesion, physically-actuated adhesion and chemically-enhanced adhesion. Mimicking these biostructures could create smart materials with switchable adhesion, appealing for many engineering applications in robotics, sensors, advanced drug-delivery, protein separation, etc. Progress has been made in developing bioinspired materials with switchable adhesion modulated by external stimuli such as electrical signal, magnetic field, light, temperature, pH value, etc. This review will be focused on new advance in biomimetic design and synthesis of the materials and devices with switchable adhesion. The underlying mechanisms, design principles, and future directions are discussed for the development of high-performance smart surfaces with switchable adhesion.

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  5. Electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to chemicals or fuels can effectively promote carbon capture and utilization, and reduce greenhouse gas emission but a serious impediment to the process is to find highly active electrocatalysts that can selectively produce desired products. Herein, we have established the design principles based on the density functional theory calculations to screen the most promising catalysts from the family of coordinately unsaturated/saturated transition metal (TM) embedded into covalent organic frameworks (TM-COFs). An intrinsic descriptor has been discovered to correlate the molecular structures of the active centers with both the activity and selectivity of the catalysts. Among all the catalysts, the coordinately unsaturated Ni-doped covalent triazine framework (Ni-CTF) is identified as one of the best electrocatalysts with the lowest overpotential (0.34 V) for CO 2 reduction toward CO while inhibiting the formation of the side products, H 2 and formic acid. Compared with coordinately saturated TM-COFs and noble metals ( e.g. Au and Ag), TM-CTFs exhibit higher catalytic activity and stronger inhibition of side products. The predictions are supported by previous experimental results. This study provides an effective strategy and predictive tool for developing desired catalysts with high activity and selectivity. 
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