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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Discrete symmetries are spatially ubiquitous but are often hidden in internal states of systems where they can have especially profound consequences. In this work we create and verify exotic magnetic phases of atomic spinor Bose–Einstein condensates that, despite their continuous character and intrinsic spatial isotropy, exhibit complex discrete polytope symmetries in their topological defects. Using carefully tailored spinor rotations and microwave transitions, we engineer singular line defects whose quantization conditions, exchange statistics, and dynamics are fundamentally determined by these underlying symmetries. We show how filling the vortex line singularities with atoms in a variety of different phases leads to core structures that possess magnetic interfaces with rich combinations of discrete and continuous symmetries. Such defects, with their non-commutative properties, could provide unconventional realizations of quantum information and interferometry.

     
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Quantized vortices appear in physical systems from superfluids and superconductors to liquid crystals and high energy physics. Unlike their scalar cousins, superfluids with complex internal structure can exhibit rich dynamics of decay and even fractional vorticity. Here, we experimentally and theoretically explore the creation and time evolution of vortex lines in the polar magnetic phase of a trapped spin-1 87 Rb Bose–Einstein condensate. A process of phase-imprinting a nonsingular vortex, its decay into a pair of singular spinor vortices, and a rapid exchange of magnetic phases creates a pair of three-dimensional, singular singly-quantized vortex lines with core regions that are filled with atoms in the ferromagnetic phase. Atomic interactions guide the subsequent vortex dynamics, leading to core structures that suggest the decay of the singly-quantized vortices into half-quantum vortices. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  5. null (Ed.)