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  4. Amorphous ceramics are a unique class of materials with unusual properties and functionalities. While these materials are known to crystallize when subjected to thermal annealing, they have sometimes been observed to crystallize athermally when exposed to extreme irradiation environments. Because irradiation is almost universally understood to introduce disorder into materials, these observations of irradiation-induced ordering or crystallization are unusual and may partially explain the limited research into this phenomenon. However, the archival literature presents a growing body of evidence of these irradiation-induced amorphous-to-crystalline (a-to-c) phase transformations in ceramics. In this perspective, the summary and review of examples from the literature of irradiation-induced a-to-c transformations for various classifications of ceramics are provided. This work will highlight irradiation conditions and material parameters that appear most influential for activating a-to-c transformations, identify trends, examine possible mechanisms, and discuss the impact of a-to-c transformations on material properties. Finally, future research directions that will enable researchers to harness a-to-c transformations to tailor materials behaviors will be provided. 
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  5. Abstract Nonaqueous sodium-based batteries are ideal candidates for the next generation of electrochemical energy storage devices. However, despite the promising performance at ambient temperature, their low-temperature (e.g., < 0 °C) operation is detrimentally affected by the increase in the electrolyte resistance and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) instability. Here, to circumvent these issues, we propose specific electrolyte formulations comprising linear and cyclic ether-based solvents and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate salt that are thermally stable down to −150 °C and enable the formation of a stable SEI at low temperatures. When tested in the Na||Na coin cell configuration, the low-temperature electrolytes enable long-term cycling down to −80 °C. Via ex situ physicochemical (e.g., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy) electrode measurements and density functional theory calculations, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for efficient low-temperature electrochemical performance. We also report the assembly and testing between −20 °C and −60 °C of full Na||Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 coin cells. The cell tested at −40 °C shows an initial discharge capacity of 68 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention of approximately 94% after 100 cycles at 22 mA g −1 . 
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