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  1. Abstract

    To tackle massive data, subsampling is a practical approach to select the more informative data points. However, when responses are expensive to measure, developing efficient subsampling schemes is challenging, and an optimal sampling approach under measurement constraints was developed to meet this challenge. This method uses the inverses of optimal sampling probabilities to reweight the objective function, which assigns smaller weights to the more important data points. Thus, the estimation efficiency of the resulting estimator can be improved. In this paper, we propose an unweighted estimating procedure based on optimal subsamples to obtain a more efficient estimator. We obtain the unconditional asymptotic distribution of the estimator via martingale techniques without conditioning on the pilot estimate, which has been less investigated in the existing subsampling literature. Both asymptotic results and numerical results show that the unweighted estimator is more efficient in parameter estimation.

     
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  2. Abstract

    With the rapid development of metro systems, it has become increasingly important to study phenomena such as passenger flow distribution and passenger boarding behavior. It is difficult for existing methods to accurately describe actual situations and to extend to the whole metro system due to the limitations from parameter uncertainties in their mathematical models. In this article, we propose a passenger‐to‐train assignment model to evaluate the probabilities of individual passengers boarding each feasible train for both no‐transfer and one‐transfer situations. This model can be used to understand passenger flows and crowdedness. The input parameters of the model include the probabilities that the passengers take each train and the probability distribution of egress time, which is the time to walk to the tap‐out fare gate after alighting from the train. We present the likelihood method to estimate these parameters based on data from the automatic fare collection and automatic vehicle location systems. This method can construct several nonparametric density estimates without assuming the parametric form of the distribution of egress time. The EM algorithm is used to compute the maximum likelihood estimates. Simulation results indicate that the proposed estimates perform well. By applying our method to real data in Beijing metro system, we can identify different passenger flow patterns between peak and off‐peak hours.

     
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