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  1. The softening effect of ultrasonic vibration on pure copper is studied from a new perspective with micro-tensile tests, where the gauge length of the specimen is one order of magnitude smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength. With this configuration, the amount of flow stress reduction increases linearly with vibration amplitude whereas the flow stress reduction is insensitive to the studied strain rate ranging from 0.06/s to 1/s. Temperature rise associated with ultrasonic vibration is minimal from infrared thermal imaging. In situ digital image correlation (DIC) analysis shows strain localization near ultrasonic source whereas uniform strain distribution was observed during conventional tensilemore »test. Optical microstructure characterization shows that area fraction of annealing twins in the deformed copper reduced from 3.3% to 1.8% with ultrasonic vibration. This is possibly attributed to enhanced interaction of dislocation between twin boundaries which act as non-regenerative dislocation source. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results show that ultrasonic vibration promotes preferential grain re-orientation and reduces the misorientation within grains.« less
  2. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory with sites across the US collecting standardized ecological observations that will operate for multiple decades. To maximize the utility of NEON data, we envision edge computing systems that gather, calibrate, aggregate, and ingest measurements in an integrated fashion. Edge systems will employ machine learning methods to cross-calibrate, gap-fill and provision data in near-real time to the NEON Data Portal and to High Performance Computing (HPC) systems, running ensembles of Earth system models (ESMs) that assimilate the data. For the first time gridded EC data products and response functions promise tomore »offset pervasive observational biases through evaluating, benchmarking, optimizing parameters, and training new ma- chine learning parameterizations within ESMs all at the same model-grid scale. Leveraging open-source software for EC data analysis, we are al- ready building software infrastructure for integration of near-real time data streams into the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) package for use by the wider research community. We will present a perspective on the design and integration of end-to-end infrastructure for data acquisition, edge computing, HPC simulation, analysis, and validation, where Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches are used throughout the distributed workflow to improve accuracy and computational performance.« less