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  1. Abstract Systemic inequity in biometrics systems based on racial and gender disparities has received a lot of attention recently. These disparities have been explored in existing biometrics systems such as facial biometrics (identifying individuals based on facial attributes). However, such ethical issues remain largely unexplored in voice biometric systems that are very popular and extensively used globally. Using a corpus of non-speech voice records featuring a diverse group of 300 speakers by race (75 each from White, Black, Asian, and Latinx subgroups) and gender (150 each from female and male subgroups), we explore and reveal that racial subgroup has a similar voice characteristic and gender subgroup has a significant different voice characteristic. Moreover, non-negligible racial and gender disparities exist in speaker identification accuracy by analyzing the performance of one commercial product and five research products. The average accuracy for Latinxs can be 12% lower than Whites (p < 0.05, 95% CI 1.58%, 14.15%) and can be significantly higher for female speakers than males (3.67% higher, p < 0.05, 95% CI 1.23%, 11.57%). We further discover that racial disparities primarily result from the neural network-based feature extraction within the voice biometric product and gender disparities primarily due to both voice inherent characteristic difference and neuralmore »network-based feature extraction. Finally, we point out strategies (e.g., feature extraction optimization) to incorporate fairness and inclusive consideration in biometrics technology.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. As the drone becomes widespread in numerous crucial applications with many powerful functionalities (e.g., reconnaissance and mechanical trigger), there are increasing cases related to misused drones for unethical even criminal activities. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify these malicious drones and track their origins using digital forensics. Traditional drone identification techniques for forensics (e.g., RF communication, ID landmarks using a camera, etc.) require high compliance of drones. However, malicious drones will not cooperate or even spoof these identification techniques. Therefore, we present an exploration for a reliable and passive identification approach based on unique hardware traits in drones directly (e.g., analogous to the fingerprint and iris in humans) for forensics purposes. Specifically, we investigate and model the behavior of the parasitic electronic elements under RF interrogation, a particular passive parasitic response modulated by an electronic system on drones, which is distinctive and unlikely to counterfeit. Based on this theory, we design and implement DroneTrace, an end-to-end reliable and passive identification system toward digital drone forensics. DroneTrace comprises a cost-effective millimeter-wave (mmWave) probe, a software framework to extract and process parasitic responses, and a customized deep neural network (DNN)-based algorithm to analyze and identify drones. We evaluate the performancemore »of DroneTrace with 36 commodity drones. Results show that DroneTrace can identify drones with the accuracy of over 99% and an equal error rate (EER) of 0.009, under a 0.1-second sensing time budget. Moreover, we test the reliability, robustness, and performance variation under a set of real-world circumstances, where DroneTrace maintains accuracy of over 98%. DroneTrace is resilient to various attacks and maintains functionality. At its best, DroneTrace has the capacity to identify individual drones at the scale of 104 with less than 5% error.« less
  3. Treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) focuses on managing its symptoms (e.g., depression, fatigue, poor sleep quality), varying with specific symptoms experienced. Thus, for optimal treatment, there arises the need to track these symptoms. Towards this goal, there is great interest in finding their relevant phenotypes. Prior research suggests links between activities of daily living (ADLs) and MS symptoms; therefore, we hypothesize that the behavioral phenotype (revealed through ADLs) is closely related to MS symptoms. Traditional approaches to finding behavioral phenotypes which rely on human observation or controlled clinical settings are burdensome and cannot account for all genuine ADLs. Here, we present MSLife, an end-to-end, burden-free approach to digital behavioral phenotyping of MS symptoms in the wild using wearables and graph-based statistical analysis. MSLife is built upon (1) low-cost, unobtrusive wearables (i.e., smartwatches) that can track and quantify ADLs among MS patients in the wild; (2) graph-based statistical analysis that can model the relationships between quantified ADLs (i.e., digital behavioral phenotype) and MS symptoms. We design, implement, and deploy MSLife with 30 MS patients across a one-week home-based IRB-approved clinical pilot study. We use the GENEActiv smartwatch to monitor ADLs and clinical behavioral instruments to collect MS symptoms. Then we developmore »a graph-based statistical analysis framework to model phenotyping relationships between ADLs and MS symptoms, incorporating confounding demographic factors. We discover 102 significant phenotyping relationships (e.g., later rise times are related to increased levels of depression, history of caffeine consumption is associated with lower fatigue levels, higher relative levels of moderate physical activity are linked with decreased sleep quality). We validate their healthcare implications, using them to track MS symptoms in retrospective analysis. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first practices to digital behavioral phenotyping of MS symptoms in the wild.« less
  4. Using wireless signals to monitor human vital signs, especially heartbeat information, has been intensively studied in the past decade. This non-contact sensing modality can drive various applications from cardiac health, sleep, and emotion management. Under the circumstance of the COVID-19 pandemic, non-contact heart monitoring receives increasingly market demands. However, existing wireless heart monitoring schemes can only detect limited heart activities, such as heart rate, fiducial points, and Seismocardiography (SCG)-like information. In this paper, we present CardiacWave to enable a non-contact high-definition heart monitoring. CardiacWave can provide a full spectrum of Electrocardiogram (ECG)-like heart activities, including the details of P-wave, T-wave, and QRS complex. Specifically, CardiacWave is built upon the Cardiac-mmWave scattering effect (CaSE), which is a variable frequency response of the cardiac electromagnetic field under the mmWave interrogation. The CardiacWave design consists of a noise-resistant sensing scheme to interrogate CaSE and a cardiac activity profiling module for extracting cardiac electrical activities from the interrogation response. Our experiments show that the CardiacWave-induced ECG measures have a high positive correlation with the heart activity ground truth (i.e., measurements from a medical-grade instrument). The timing difference of P-waves, T-waves, and QRS complex is 0.67%, 0.71%, and 0.49%, respectively, and a mean cardiac eventmore »difference is within a delay of 5.3 milliseconds. These results indicate that CaridacWave offers high-fidelity and integral heart clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we evaluate the CardiacWave system with participants under various conditions, including heart and breath rates, ages, and heart habits (e.g., tobacco use).« less
  5. In recent years, biometrics (e.g., fingerprint or face recognition) has replaced traditional passwords and PINs as a widely used method for user authentication, particularly in personal or mobile devices. Differing from state-of-the-art biometrics, heart biometrics offer the advantages of liveness detection, which provides strong tolerance to spoofing attacks. To date, several authentication methods primarily focusing on electrocardiogram (ECG) have demonstrated remarkable success; however, the degree of exploration with other cardiac signals is still limited. To this end, we discuss the challenges in various cardiac domains and propose future prospectives for developing effective heart biometrics systems in real-world applications.