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  4. Abstract Nuclear reactions heat and cool the crust of accreting neutron stars and need to be understood to interpret observations of X-ray bursts and long-term cooling in transiently accreting systems. It was recently suggested that previously ignored neutron transfer reactions may play a significant role in the nuclear processes. We present results from full nuclear network calculations that now include these reactions and determine their impact on crust composition, crust impurity, heating, and cooling. We find that a large number of neutron transfer reactions indeed occur and impact crust models. In particular, we identify a new type of reaction cyclemore »that brings a pair of nuclei across the nuclear chart into equilibrium via alternating neutron capture and neutron release, interspersed with a neutron transfer. While neutron transfer reactions lead to changes in crust model predictions and need to be considered in future studies, previous conclusions concerning heating, cooling, and compositional evolution are remarkably robust.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  5. Curvatures in mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have been extensively studied for vibration-based structural damage identification in recent decades. Curvatures of mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have proved capable of localizing and manifesting local effects of damage on mode shapes and operating deflection shapes in forms of local anomalies. The damage can be inversely identified in the neighborhoods of the anomalies that exist in the curvatures. Meanwhile, propagating flexural waves have also been extensively studied for structural damage identification and proved to be effective, thanks to their high damage-sensitivity and long range of propagation. In this work, amore »baseline-free structural damage identification method is developed for beam-like structures using curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves. A multi-resolution local-regression temporal-spatial curvature damage index (TSCDI) is defined in a pointwise manner. A two-dimensional auxiliary TSCDI and a one-dimensional auxiliary damage index are developed to further assist the identification. Two major advantages of the proposed method are: (1) curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves have relatively high signal-to-noise ratios due to the use of a multi-resolution central finite difference scheme, so that the local effects of the damage can be manifested, and (2) the proposed method does not require quantitative knowledge of a pristine structure associated with a structure to be examined, such as its material properties, waveforms of propagating flexural waves and boundary conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations of the proposed method are conducted on damaged beam-like structures, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the results of the investigations.« less
  6. Linear mixed-effects models play a fundamental role in statistical methodology. A variety of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms exist for fitting these models, but they are inefficient in massive data settings because every iteration of any such MCMC algorithm passes through the full data. Many divide-and-conquer methods have been proposed to solve this problem, but they lack theoretical guarantees, impose restrictive assumptions, or have complex computational algorithms. Our focus is one such method called the Wasserstein Posterior (WASP), which has become popular due to its optimal theoretical properties under general assumptions. Unfortunately, practical implementation of the WASP either requiresmore »solving a complex linear program or is limited to one-dimensional parameters. The former method is inefficient and the latter method fails to capture the joint posterior dependence structure of multivariate parameters. We develop a new algorithm for computing the WASP of multivariate parameters that is easy to implement and is useful for computing the WASP in any model where the posterior distribution of parameter belongs to a location-scatter family of probability measures. The algorithm is introduced for linear mixed-effects models with both implementation details and theoretical properties. Our algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art method in inference on the functions of the covariance matrix of the random effects across diverse numerical comparisons.« less
  7. Abstract The study of stellar burning began just over 100 years ago. Nonetheless, we do not yet have a detailed picture of the nucleosynthesis within stars and how nucleosynthesis impacts stellar structure and the remnants of stellar evolution. Achieving this understanding will require precise direct measurements of the nuclear reactions involved. This report summarizes the status of direct measurements for stellar burning, focusing on developments of the last couple of decades, and offering a prospectus of near-future developments.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 25, 2022