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    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) and the VLA survey in the XMM-LSS/VIDEO deep field provide deep (≈15 $\mu$ Jy beam−1) and high-resolution (≈4.5–8 arcsec) radio coverage of the three XMM-SERVS fields (W-CDF-S, ELAIS-S1, and XMM-LSS). These data cover a total sky area of 11.3 deg2 and contain ≈11 000 radio components. Furthermore, about 3 deg2 of the XMM-LSS field also has deeper MIGHTEE data that achieve a median RMS of 5.6 $\mu$ Jy beam−1 and detect more than 20 000 radio sources. We analyse all these radio data and find source counterparts at other wavebands utilizing deep optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The nature of these radio sources is studied using radio-band properties (spectral slope and morphology) and the IR–radio correlation. Radio AGNs are selected and compared with those selected using other methods (e.g. X-ray). We found 1656 new AGNs that were not selected using X-ray and/or MIR methods. We constrain the FIR-to-UV SEDs of radio AGNs using cigale and investigate the dependence of radio AGN fraction upon galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate.

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  2. Abstract

    Active dwarf galaxies are important because they contribute to the evolution of dwarf galaxies and can reveal their hosted massive black holes. However, the sample size of such sources beyond the local universe is still highly limited. In this work, we search for active dwarf galaxies in the recently completed XMM-Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (XMM-SERVS). XMM-SERVS is currently the largest medium-depth X-ray survey covering 13 deg2in three extragalactic fields, which all have well-characterized multiwavelength information. After considering several factors that may lead to misidentifications, we identify 73 active dwarf galaxies atz< 1, which constitutes the currently largest X-ray-selected sample beyond the local universe. Our sources are generally less obscured than predictions based on the massive-AGN (active galactic nucleus) X-ray luminosity function and have a low radio-excess fraction. We find that our sources reside in environments similar to those of inactive dwarf galaxies. We further quantify the accretion distribution of the dwarf-galaxy population after considering various selection effects and find that it decreases with X-ray luminosity, but redshift evolution cannot be statistically confirmed. Depending on how we define an AGN, the active fraction may or may not show a strong dependence on stellar mass. Their Eddington ratios and X-ray bolometric corrections significantly deviate from the expected relation, which is likely caused by several large underlying systematic biases when estimating the relevant parameters for dwarf galaxies. Throughout this work, we also highlight problems in reliably measuring photometric redshifts and overcoming strong selection effects for distant active dwarf galaxies.

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  3. Abstract W-CDF-S, ELAIS-S1, and XMM-LSS will be three Deep-Drilling Fields (DDFs) of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), but their extensive multiwavelength data have not been fully utilized as done in the COSMOS field, another LSST DDF. To prepare for future science, we fit source spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from X-ray to far-infrared in these three fields mainly to derive galaxy stellar masses and star formation rates. We use CIGALE v2022.0, a code that has been regularly developed and evaluated, for the SED fitting. Our catalog includes 0.8 million sources covering 4.9 deg 2 in W-CDF-S, 0.8 million sources covering 3.4 deg 2 in ELAIS-S1, and 1.2 million sources covering 4.9 deg 2 in XMM-LSS. Besides fitting normal galaxies, we also select candidates that may host active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or are experiencing recent star formation variations and use models specifically designed for these sources to fit their SEDs; this increases the utility of our catalog for various projects in the future. We calibrate our measurements by comparison with those in well-studied smaller regions and briefly discuss the implications of our results. We also perform detailed tests of the completeness and purity of SED-selected AGNs. Our data can be retrieved from a public website. 
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