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  1. Light propagation in turbid mediums such as atmosphere, fluids, and biological tissues is a challenging problem which necessitates accurate simulation techniques to account for the effects of multiple scattering. The Monte Carlo method has long established itself as a gold standard and is widely adopted for simulating light transport, however, its computationally intensive nature often requires significant processing power and energy consumption. In this paper a novel, open source Monte Carlo algorithm is introduced which is specifically designed for use with energy-efficient processors, effectively addressing those challenges, while maintaining the accuracy/compatibility and outperforming existing solutions. The proposed implementation optimizes photon transport simulations by exploiting the unique capabilities of Apple’s low-power, high-performance M-family of chips. The developed method has been implemented in an open-source software package, enabling seamless adaptation of developed algorithms for specific applications. The accuracy and performance are validated using comprehensive comparison with existing solvers commonly used for biomedical imaging. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm achieves comparable accuracy levels to those of existing techniques while significantly reducing computational time and energy consumption.

     
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  2. Development of a simple, label-free screening technique capable of precisely and directly sensing interaction-in-solution over a size range from small molecules to large proteins such as antibodies could offer an important tool for researchers and pharmaceutical companies in the field of drug development. In this work, we present a thermostable Raman interaction profiling (TRIP) technique that facilitates low-concentration and low-dose screening of binding between protein and ligand in physiologically relevant conditions. TRIP was applied to eight protein–ligand systems, and produced reproducible high-resolution Raman measurements, which were analyzed by principal component analysis. TRIP was able to resolve time-depending binding between 2,4-dinitrophenol and transthyretin, and analyze biologically relevant SARS-CoV-2 spike-antibody interactions. Mixtures of the spike receptor–binding domain with neutralizing, nonbinding, or binding but nonneutralizing antibodies revealed distinct and reproducible Raman signals. TRIP holds promise for the future developments of high-throughput drug screening and real-time binding measurements between protein and drug. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2024
  3. Optical vortex beams, with phase singularity characterized by a topological charge (TC), introduces a new dimension for optical communication, quantum information, and optical light manipulation. However, the evaluation of TCs after beam propagation remains a substantial challenge, impeding practical applications. Here, we introduce vortices in lateral arrays (VOILA), a novel spatial multiplexing approach that enables simultaneous transmission of a lateral array of multiple vortices. Leveraging advanced learning techniques, VOILA effectively decodes TCs, even in the presence of strong optical nonlinearities simulated experimentally. Notably, our approach achieves substantial improvements in single-shot bandwidth, surpassing single-vortex scheme by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, our system exhibits precise fractional TC recognition in both linear and nonlinear regimes, providing possibilities for high-bandwidth communication. The capabilities of VOILA promise transformative contributions to optical information processing and structured light research, with significant potential for advancements in diverse fields.

     
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  4. Brillouin microscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for mechanical property measurements in biomedical sensing and imaging applications. Impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering (ISBS) microscopy has been proposed for faster and more accurate measurements, which do not rely on stable narrow-band lasers and thermally-drifting etalon-based spectrometers. However, the spectral resolution of ISBS-based signal has not been significantly explored. In this report, the ISBS spectral profile has been investigated as a function of the pump beam’s spatial geometry, and novel methodologies have been developed for accurate spectral assessment. The ISBS linewidth was found to consistently decrease with increasing pump-beam diameter. These findings provide the means for improved spectral resolution measurements and pave the way to broader applications of ISBS microscopy.

     
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  5. Brillouin microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique used to assess local viscoelastic properties. Quantum-enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated using low power continuous-wave lasers at 795 nm. A signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of 3.4 dB is reported by using two-mode intensity-difference squeezed light generated with the four-wave mixing process in atomic rubidium vapor. The low optical power and the excitation wavelengths in the water transparency window have the potential to provide a powerful bio-imaging technique for probing mechanical properties of biological samples prone to phototoxicity and thermal effects. The performance enhancement affordable through the use of quantum light may pave the way for significantly improved sensitivity that cannot be achieved classically. The proposed method for utilizing squeezed light for enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering can be easily adapted for both spectroscopic and imaging applications in biology.

     
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  6. Nitrogen vacancy diamonds have emerged as sensitive solid-state magnetic field sensors capable of producing diffraction limited and sub-diffraction field images. Here, for the first time, to our knowledge, we extend those measurements to high-speed imaging, which can be readily applied to analyze currents and magnetic field dynamics in circuits on a microscopic scale. To overcome detector acquisition rate limitations, we designed an optical streaking nitrogen vacancy microscope to acquire two-dimensional spatiotemporal kymograms. We demonstrate magnetic field wave imaging with micro-scale spatial extent and400  μstemporal resolution. In validating this system, we detected magnetic fields down to 10 μT for 40 Hz magnetic fields using single-shot imaging and captured the spatial transit of an electromagnetic needle at streak rates as high as 110 μm/ms. This design has the capability to be readily extended to full 3D video acquisition by utilizing compressed sensing techniques and a potential for further improvement of spatial resolution, acquisition speed, and sensitivity. The device opens opportunities to many potential applications where transient magnetic events can be isolated to a single spatial axis, such as acquiring spatially propagating action potentials for brain imaging and remotely interrogating integrated circuits.

     
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  7. The dimensionality of a physical system is one of the major parameters defining its physical properties. The recently introduced concept of synthetic dimension has made it possible to arbitrarily manipulate the system of interest and harness light propagation in different ways. It also facilitates the transformative architecture of system-on-a-chip devices enabling far reaching applications such as optical isolation. In this report, a novel architecture based on dynamically-modulated waveguide arrays with the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger configuration in the spatial dimension is proposed and investigated with an eye on a practical implementation. The propagation of light through the one-dimensional waveguide arrays mimics time evolution of the field in a synthetic two-dimensional lattice. The addition of the effective gauge potential leads to an exotic topologically protected one-way transmission along adjacent boundary. A cosine-shape isolated band, which supports the topological Bloch oscillation in the frequency dimension under the effective constant force, appears and is localized at the spatial boundary being robust against small perturbations. This work paves the way to improved light transmission capabilities under topological protections in both spatial and spectral regimes and provides a novel platform based on a technologically feasible lithium niobate platform for optical computing and communication.

     
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Larin, Kirill V. ; Scarcelli, Giuliano (Ed.)
  10. Molecular, morphological, and physiological heterogeneity is the inherent property of cells which governs differences in their response to external influence. Tumor cell metabolic heterogeneity is of a special interest due to its clinical relevance to tumor progression and therapeutic outcomes. Rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive assessment of metabolic heterogeneity of cells is a great demand for biomedical sciences. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), which is an all-optical technique, is an emerging tool for sensing and quantifying cellular metabolism by measuring fluorescence decay parameters of endogenous fluorophores, such as NAD(P)H. To achieve accurate discrimination between metabolically diverse cellular subpopulations, appropriate approaches to FLIM data collection and analysis are needed. In this paper, the unique capability of FLIM to attain the overarching goal of discriminating metabolic heterogeneity is demonstrated. This has been achieved using an approach to data analysis based on the nonparametric analysis, which revealed a much better sensitivity to the presence of metabolically distinct subpopulations compared to more traditional approaches of FLIM measurements and analysis. The approach was further validated for imaging cultured cancer cells treated with chemotherapy. These results pave the way for accurate detection and quantification of cellular metabolic heterogeneity using FLIM, which will be valuable for assessing therapeutic vulnerabilities and predicting clinical outcomes. 
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