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  1. Abstract

    Absolute paleointensity (API) of the geomagnetic field can be estimated from volcanic rocks by comparing the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) to a laboratory‐induced thermoremanent magnetization (Lab‐TRM). Plots of NRM unblocking versus Lab‐TRM blocking from API experiments often exhibit nonideal curvature, which can result in biased estimates. Previous work showed that curvature can increase with age; however, selection criteria designed to eliminate such behavior yielded accurate estimates for two‐year‐aged specimens (70.3 ± 3.8 μT;N = 96 specimens out of 120 experiments). API can also be estimated in coercivity space. Here, we use the Tsunakawa‐Shaw (TS) method applied to 20 specimens aged in the laboratory field of 70.0 μT for 4 years, after acquisition of zero‐age (fresh) Lab‐TRM in the same field. Selection criteria for the TS experiment also yielded accurate results (68.5 ± 4.5 μT;N = 17 specimens). In thermal API experiments, curvature is related to internal structure with more single domain‐like behavior having the least curvature. Here we show that the fraction of anhysteretic remanent magnetization demagnetized by low‐temperature treatment was larger for samples with larger thermal curvatures suggesting a magnetocrystalline anisotropy source. We also tested experimental remedies that have been proposed to improve the accuracy of paleointensity estimates. In particular, we test the efficacy of the multi‐specimen approach and a strategy pretreating specimens with low field alternating field demagnetization prior to the paleointensity experiment. Neither yielded accurate results.

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  3. Optical approaches to AI acceleration have gained intense interest recently due to the potentially breakthrough advantages of photonics: high bandwidth, low power consumption, and efficient data movement. We overview leading photonic AI platforms based on beamsplitter mesh networks, weight banks, and photoelectric multiplication. While the theoretical performance can be orders of magnitude beyond current state of the art, practical issues of chip area, input / output, and crosstalk paint a more nuanced near-term picture of photonic AI acceleration. Both fundamental and near-term limitations to energy efficiency are addressed, and bandwidth limitations due to temporal crosstalk are analyzed. 
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  6. Samples of the carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu were brought to Earth by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We analyzed seventeen Ryugu samples measuring 1-8 mm. CO 2 -bearing water inclusions are present within a pyrrhotite crystal, indicating that Ryugu’s parent asteroid formed in the outer Solar System. The samples contain low abundances of materials that formed at high temperatures, such as chondrules and Ca, Al-rich inclusions. The samples are rich in phyllosilicates and carbonates, which formed by aqueous alteration reactions at low temperature, high pH, and water/rock ratios < 1 (by mass). Less altered fragments contain olivine, pyroxene, amorphous silicates, calcite, and phosphide. Numerical simulations, based on the mineralogical and physical properties of the samples, indicate Ryugu’s parent body formed ~ 2 million years after the beginning of Solar System formation. 
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  7. Abstract

    The early to middle Eocene is marked by prominent changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages coinciding both with long‐term climate changes and modification of the North Atlantic deep ocean circulation. In order to assess the impact of Eocene climate change on surface water environmental conditions of the Northwest Atlantic, we developed calcareous nannoplankton assemblage data and bulk stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) across an early to middle Eocene interval (~52–43 Ma) at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, ~41°N). At this site, early Eocene sediments are pelagic nannofossil chalk, whereas middle Eocene deposits occur as clay‐rich drift sediments reflecting the progressive influence of northern‐sourced deep currents. Between the end of Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and the Ypresian/Lutetian boundary, calcareous nannofossils switched from an assemblage mainly composed of warm‐water and oligotrophic taxa (Zygrhablithus,Discoaster,Sphenolithus,Coccolithus) to one dominated by the more temperate and eutrophic reticulofenestrids. The most prominent period of accelerated assemblage change occurred during a ~2‐Myr phase of relatively high bulk δ18O values possibly related to the post‐EECO cooling. Although the dominance of reticulofenestrids persisted unvaried throughout the middle Eocene interval, early Lutetian (~47.4 to 47 Ma) stable isotope records indicate a reversal in the paleoenvironmetal trends suggesting a potential restoration of warmer conditions. Importantly, our data indicate that the ~2‐Myr interval immediately following the EECO was crucial in establishing the modern calcareous nannofossil assemblage structure and also reveal that the establishment ofReticulofenestra‐dominated assemblage occurred prior to the onset of persistent deep current system in the Northwest Atlantic.

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