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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential metal for chlorophyll biosynthesis and other metabolic processes in plant cells. Mg is largely stored in the vacuole of various cell types and remobilized to meet cytoplasmic demand. However, the transport proteins responsible for mobilizing vacuolar Mg2+ remain unknown. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Mg2+ transporters (MAGNESIUM TRANSPORTER 1 and 2; MGT1 and MGT2) that facilitate Mg2+ mobilization from the vacuole, especially when external Mg supply is limited. In addition to a high degree of sequence similarity, MGT1 and MGT2 exhibited overlapping expression patterns in Arabidopsis tissues, implying functional redundancy. Indeed, the mgt1 mgt2 double mutant, but not mgt1 and mgt2 single mutants, showed exaggerated growth defects as compared to the wild type under low-Mg conditions, in accord with higher expression levels of Mg-starvation gene markers in the double mutant. However, overall Mg level was also higher in mgt1 mgt2, suggesting a defect in Mg2+ remobilization in response to Mg deficiency. Consistently, MGT1 and MGT2 localized to the tonoplast and rescued the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mnr2Δ (manganese resistance 2) mutant strain lacking the vacuolar Mg2+ efflux transporter. In addition, disruption of MGT1 and MGT2 suppressed high-Mg sensitivity of calcineurin B-like 2 and 3 (cbl2 cbl3), a mutant defective in vacuolar Mg2+ sequestration, suggesting that vacuolar Mg2+ influx and efflux processes are antagonistic in a physiological context. We further crossed mgt1 mgt2 with mgt6, which lacks a plasma membrane MGT member involved in Mg2+ uptake, and found that the triple mutant was more sensitive to low-Mg conditions than either mgt1 mgt2 or mgt6. Hence, Mg2+ uptake (via MGT6) and vacuolar remobilization (through MGT1 and MGT2) work synergistically to achieve Mg2+ homeostasis in plants, especially under low-Mg supply in the environment.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    Systematic investigations were performed with various substituted groups at C8 purine and ribose. A series of isoG analogs, C8-phenyl substituted isoG were synthesized and applied for Cs + coordination. The structural proximity between purine and ribose limited pentaplex formation for C8-phenyl substituted isoG derivatives. Based on this observation, deoxy isoG derivative with modification on ribose ( tert -butyldimethylsilyl ether) was applied to assemble with the Cs + cation. Critical solvent (CDCl 3 and CD 3 CN) and anion (BPh 4 − , BARF − , and PF 6 − ) effects were revealed, leading to the controllable formation of various stable isoG pentaplexes, including singly charged decamer, doubly charged decamer, and 15-mer, etc. Finally, the X-ray crystal structure of [isoG 20 Cs 3 ] 3+ (BARF − ) 3 was successfully obtained, which is the first example of multiple-layer deoxy isoG binding with the Cs + cation, providing solid evidence of this new isoG ionophore beyond two-layer sandwich self-assembly. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    The spectroscopic, electronic, and geometrical properties of acenes have enabled their broad applicability in organic optoelectronics. Beyond these physical characteristics of acenes, acenes also offer characteristic and predictable reaction chemistry, especially their behavior as dienes in cycloaddition reactions. Although these cycloaddition reactions, especially those with singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) as the dienophile, are detrimental for organic electronics, this reactivity has led to several different applications such as sensing of 1 O 2 , the release of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), and stimuli-responsive materials for drug delivery. The rational design of acenes in these chemically-responsive applications beyond organic optoelectronics requires an understanding of how chemical structure influences both the physical properties, such as quantum yield of emission, as well as the reactivity of acenes and their cycloadducts. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize how cycloaddition reactions of acenes have expanded their applications in different areas of materials chemistry, and in doing so inspire and inform the rational design of acene-based materials with applications beyond organic electronics. 
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