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  1. Abstract

    Laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing presents ample opportunities to produce net-shape parts. The complex laser-powder interactions result in high cooling rates that often lead to unique microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Refractory high-entropy alloys show great potential for high-temperature applications but are notoriously difficult to process by additive processes due to their sensitivity to cracking and defects, such as un-melted powders and keyholes. Here, we present a method based on a normalized model-based processing diagram to achieve a nearly defect-free TiZrNbTa alloy via in-situ alloying of elemental powders during L-PBF. Compared to its as-cast counterpart, the as-printed TiZrNbTa exhibits comparable mechanical properties but with enhanced elastic isotropy. This method has good potential for other refractory alloy systems based on in-situ alloying of elemental powders, thereby creating new opportunities to rapidly expand the collection of processable refractory materials via L-PBF.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Plant diversity effects on community productivity often increase over time. Whether the strengthening of diversity effects is caused by temporal shifts in species-level overyielding (i.e., higher species-level productivity in diverse communities compared with monocultures) remains unclear. Here, using data from 65 grassland and forest biodiversity experiments, we show that the temporal strength of diversity effects at the community scale is underpinned by temporal changes in the species that yield. These temporal trends of species-level overyielding are shaped by plant ecological strategies, which can be quantitatively delimited by functional traits. In grasslands, the temporal strengthening of biodiversity effects on community productivity was associated with increasing biomass overyielding of resource-conservative species increasing over time, and with overyielding of species characterized by fast resource acquisition either decreasing or increasing. In forests, temporal trends in species overyielding differ when considering above- versus belowground resource acquisition strategies. Overyielding in stem growth decreased for species with high light capture capacity but increased for those with high soil resource acquisition capacity. Our results imply that a diversity of species with different, and potentially complementary, ecological strategies is beneficial for maintaining community productivity over time in both grassland and forest ecosystems.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  4. Abstract

    Nanomeshes, often referred to as phononic crystals, have been extensively explored for their unique properties, including phonon coherence and ultralow thermal conductivity (κ). However, experimental demonstrations of phonon coherence are rare and indirect, often relying on comparison with numerical modeling. Notably, a significant aspect of phonon coherence, namely the disorder-induced reduction in κ observed in superlattices, has yet to be experimentally demonstrated. In this study, through atomistic modeling and spectral analysis, we systematically investigate and compare phonon transport behaviors in graphene nanomeshes, characterized by 1D line-like hole boundaries, and silicon nanomeshes, featuring 2D surface-like hole boundaries, while considering various forms of hole boundary roughness. Our findings highlight that to demonstrate disorder-induced reduction in κ of nanomeshes, optimal conditions include low temperature, smooth and planar hole boundaries, and the utilization of thick films composed of 3D materials.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 3, 2025
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  6. Abstract

    Graphene-based electrodes have been extensively investigated for supercapacitor applications. However, their ion diffusion efficiency is often hindered by the graphene restacking phenomenon. Even though holey graphene is fabricated to address this issue by providing ion transport channels, those channels could still be blocked by densely stacked graphene nanosheets. To tackle this challenge, this research aims at improving the ion diffusion efficiency of microwave-synthesized holey graphene films by tuning the water interlayer spacer towards the improved supercapacitor performance. By controlling the vacuum filtration during graphene-based electrode fabrication, we obtain dry films with dense packing and wet films with sparse packing. The SEM images reveal that 20 times larger interlayer distance is constructed in the wet film compared to that in the dry counterpart. The holey graphene wet film delivers a specific capacitance of 239 F/g, ~82% enhancement over the dry film (131 F/g). By an integrated experimental and computational study, we quantitatively show that the interlayer spacing in combination with the nanoholes in the basal plane dominates the ion diffusion rate in holey graphene-based electrodes. Our study concludes that novel hierarchical structures should be further considered even in holey graphene thin films to fully exploit the superior advantages of graphene-based supercapacitors.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 24, 2025
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  8. Abstract

    Molecular recognition of proteins is key to their biological functions and processes such as protein–protein interactions (PPIs). The large binding interface involved and an often relatively flat binding surface make the development of selective protein-binding materials extremely challenging. A general method is reported in this work to construct protein-binding polymeric nanoparticles from cross-linked surfactant micelles. Preparation involves first dynamic covalent chemistry that encodes signature surface lysines on a protein template. A double molecular imprinting procedure fixes the binding groups on the nanoparticle for these lysine groups, meanwhile creating a binding interface complementary to the protein in size, shape, and distribution of acidic groups on the surface. These water-soluble nanoparticles possess excellent specificities for target proteins and sufficient affinities to inhibit natural PPIs such as those between cytochrome c (Cytc) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). With the ability to enter cells through a combination of energy-dependent and -independent pathways, they intervene apoptosis by inhibiting the PPI between Cytc and the apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF1). Generality of the preparation and the excellent molecular recognition of the materials have the potential to make them powerful tools to probe protein functions in vitro and in cellulo.

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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 18, 2025
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 15, 2025