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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Metamaterials present great potential in the applications of solar cells and nanophotonics, such as super lenses and other meta devices, owing to their superior optical properties. In particular, hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) with exceptional optical anisotropy offer improved manipulation of light–matter interactions as well as a divergence in the density of states and thus show enhanced performances in related fields. Recently, the emerging field of oxide–metal vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs) suggests a new approach to realize HMMs with flexible microstructural modulations. In this work, a new oxide–metal metamaterial system, CeO 2 –Au, has been demonstrated with variable Au phase morphologies from nanoparticle-in-matrix (PIM), nanoantenna-in-matrix, to VAN. The effective morphology tuning through deposition background pressure, and the corresponding highly tunable optical performance of three distinctive morphologies, were systematically explored and analyzed. A hyperbolic dispersion at high wavelength has been confirmed in the nano-antenna CeO 2 –Au thin film, proving this system as a promising candidate for HMM applications. More interestingly, a new and abnormal in-plane epitaxy of Au nanopillars following the large mismatched CeO 2 matrix instead of the well-matched SrTiO 3 substrate, was discovered. Additionally, the tilting angle of Au nanopillars, α , has been found to be a quantitative measure of the balance between kinetics and thermodynamics during the depositions of VANs. All these findings provide valuable information in the understanding of the VAN formation mechanisms and related morphology tuning. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 4, 2024
  4. Abstract

    In this paper, general rogue wave solutions in the massive Thirring (MT) model are derived by using the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy reduction method and these rational solutions are presented explicitly in terms of determinants whose matrix elements are elementary Schur polynomials. In the reduction process, three reduction conditions including one index‐ and two dimension‐ones are proved to be consistent by only one constraint relation on parameters of tau‐functions of the KP‐Toda hierarchy. It is found that the rogue wave solutions in the MT model depend on two background parameters, which influence their orientation and duration. Differing from many other coupled integrable systems, the MT model only admits the rogue waves of bright‐type, and the higher order rogue waves represent the superposition of fundamental ones in which the nonreducible parameters determine the arrangement patterns of fundamental rogue waves. Particularly, the super rogue wave at each order can be achieved simply by setting all internal parameters to be zero, resulting in the amplitude of the sole huge peak of orderNbeing times the background. Finally, rogue wave patterns are discussed when one of the internal parameters is large. Similar to other integrable equations, the patterns are shown to be associated with the root structures of the Yablonskii–Vorob'ev polynomial hierarchy through a linear transformation.

     
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  5. For over two centuries, clinicians have hypothesized that cancer developed preferentially at the sites of repeated damage, indicating that cancer is basically “continued healing.” Tumor cells can develop over time into other more malignant types in different environments. Interestingly, indefinite growth correlates with the depletion of a modular, early rigidity sensor, whereas restoring these sensors in tumor cells blocks tumor growth on soft surfaces and metastases. Importantly, normal and tumor cells from many different tissues exhibit transformed growth without the early rigidity sensor. When sensors are restored in tumor cells by replenishing depleted mechanosensory proteins that are often cytoskeletal, cells revert to normal rigidity-dependent growth. Surprisingly, transformed growth cells are sensitive to mechanical stretching or ultrasound which will cause apoptosis of transformed growth cells (Mechanoptosis). Mechanoptosis is driven by calcium entry through mechanosensitive Piezo1 channels that activate a calcium-induced calpain response commonly found in tumor cells. Since tumor cells from many different tissues are in a transformed growth state that is, characterized by increased growth, an altered cytoskeleton and mechanoptosis, it is possible to inhibit growth of many different tumors by mechanical activity and potentially by cytoskeletal inhibitors. 
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  6. Seagrass meadows are essential habitats that support marine biodiversity and coastal communities while sequestering carbon, filtering water, and stabilizing coastal sediments. Warming temperatures stress seagrass meadows and can facilitate seagrass wasting disease, contributing to large-scale diebacks of seagrass meadows. Here, we demonstrate how high-resolution imagery, collected by uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) and validated by in situ sampling, can quantify seagrass responses to disease and thermal stress. 
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  7. Abstract

    We show that new types of rogue wave patterns exist in integrable systems, and these rogue patterns are described by root structures of Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. These rogue patterns arise when the τ functions of rogue wave solutions are determinants of Schur polynomials with index jumps of three, and an internal free parameter in these rogue waves gets large. We demonstrate these new rogue patterns in the Manakov system and the three‐wave resonant interaction system. For each system, we derive asymptotic predictions of its rogue patterns under a large internal parameter through Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. Unlike the previously reported rogue patterns associated with the Yablonskii–Vorob'ev hierarchy, a new feature in the present rogue patterns is that the mapping from the root structure of Okamoto‐hierarchy polynomials to the shape of the rogue pattern is linear only to the leading order, but becomes nonlinear to the next order. As a consequence, the current rogue patterns are often deformed, sometimes strongly deformed, from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures, unless the underlying internal parameter is very large. Our analytical predictions of rogue patterns are compared to true solutions, and excellent agreement is observed, even when rogue patterns are strongly deformed from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures.

     
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  8. Eelgrass creates critical coastal habitats worldwide and fulfills essential ecosystem functions as a foundation seagrass. Climate warming and disease threaten eelgrass, causing mass mortalities and cascading ecological impacts. Subtidal meadows are deeper than intertidal and may also provide refuge from the temperature-sensitive seagrass wasting disease. From cross-boundary surveys of 5761 eelgrass leaves from Alaska to Washington and assisted with a machine-language algorithm, we measured outbreak conditions. Across summers 2017 and 2018, disease prevalence was 16% lower for subtidal than intertidal leaves; in both tidal zones, disease risk was lower for plants in cooler conditions. Even in subtidal meadows, which are more environmentally stable and sheltered from temperature and other stressors common for intertidal eelgrass, we observed high disease levels, with half of the sites exceeding 50% prevalence. Models predicted reduced disease prevalence and severity under cooler conditions, confirming a strong interaction between disease and temperature. At both tidal zones, prevalence was lower in more dense eelgrass meadows, suggesting disease is suppressed in healthy, higher density meadows. These results underscore the value of subtidal eelgrass and meadows in cooler locations as refugia, indicate that cooling can suppress disease, and have implications for eelgrass conservation and management under future climate change scenarios. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Infectious disease ecology and evolution in a changing world’. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 27, 2024