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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024

    We study the formation of the TRAPPIST-1 (T1) planets starting shortly after Moon-sized bodies form just exterior to the ice line. Our model includes mass growth from pebble accretion and mergers, fragmentation, type-I migration, and eccentricity and inclination dampening from gas drag. We follow the composition evolution of the planets fed by a dust condensation code that tracks how various dust species condense out of the disc as it cools. We use the final planet compositions to calculate the resulting radii of the planets using a new planet interior structure code and explore various interior structure models. Our model reproduces the broader architecture of the T1 system and constrains the initial water mass fraction of the early embryos and the final relative abundances of the major refractory elements. We find that the inner two planets likely experienced giant impacts and fragments from collisions between planetary embryos often seed the small planets that subsequently grow through pebble accretion. Using our composition constraints, we find solutions for a two-layer model, a planet comprised of only a core and mantle, that match observed bulk densities for the two inner planets b and c. This, along with the high number of giant impacts the inner planets experienced, is consistent with recent observations that these planets are likely desiccated. However, two-layer models seem unlikely for most of the remaining outer planets, which suggests that these planets have a primordial hydrosphere. Our composition constraints also indicate that no planets are consistent with a core-free interior structure.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract Giant planets have been discovered at large separations from the central star. Moreover, a striking number of young circumstellar disks have gas and/or dust gaps at large orbital separations, potentially driven by embedded planetary objects. To form massive planets at large orbital separations through core accretion within the disk lifetime, however, an early solid body to seed pebble and gas accretion is desirable. Young protoplanetary disks are likely self-gravitating, and these gravitoturbulent disks may efficiently concentrate solid material at the midplane driven by spiral waves. We run 3D local hydrodynamical simulations of gravitoturbulent disks with Lagrangian dust particles to determine whether particle and gas self-gravity can lead to the formation of dense solid bodies, seeding later planet formation. When self-gravity between dust particles is included, solids of size St = 0.1–1 concentrate within the gravitoturbulent spiral features and collapse under their own self-gravity into dense clumps up to several M ⊕ in mass at wide orbits. Simulations with dust that drift most efficiently, St = 1, form the most massive clouds of particles, while simulations with smaller dust particles, St = 0.1, have clumps with masses an order of magnitude lower. When the effect of dust backreaction onto the gas is included, dust clumps become smaller by a factor of a few but more numerous. The existence of large solid bodies at an early stage of the disk can accelerate the planet formation process, particularly at wide orbital separations, and potentially explain planets distant from the central stars and young protoplanetary disks with substructures. 
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