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Creators/Authors contains: "Yang, H."

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  1. Abstract

    The past ∼200 million years of Earth's geomagnetic field behavior have been recorded within oceanic basalts, many of which are only accessible via scientific ocean drilling. Obtaining the best possible paleomagnetic measurements from such valuable samples requires an a priori understanding of their magnetic mineralogies when choosing the most appropriate protocol for stepwise demagnetization experiments (either alternating field or thermal). Here, we present a quick, and non‐destructive method that utilizes the amplitude‐dependence of magnetic susceptibility to screen submarine basalts prior to choosing a demagnetization protocol, whenever conducting a pilot study or other detailed rock‐magnetic characterization is not possible. We demonstrate this method using samples acquired during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 391. Our approach is rooted in the observation that amplitude‐dependent magnetic susceptibility is observed in basalt samples whose dominant magnetic carrier is multidomain titanomagnetite (∼TM60–65, (Ti0.60–0.65Fe0.35–0.40)Fe2O4). Samples with low Ti contents within titanomagnetite or samples that have experienced a high degree of oxidative weathering do not display appreciable amplitude dependence. Due to their low Curie temperatures, basalts that possess amplitude‐dependence should ideally be demagnetized either using alternating fields or via finely‐spaced thermal demagnetization heating steps below 300°C. Our screening method can enhance the success rate of paleomagnetic studies of oceanic basalt samples.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Cylinder buckling is notoriously sensitive to small geometric imperfections. This is an underlying motivation for the use of knock-down factors in the design process, especially in circumstances in which minimum weight is a key design goal, an approach well-established at NASA, for example. Not only does this provide challenges in the practical design of this commonly occurring structural load-bearing configuration, but also in the carefully controlled laboratory setting. The recent development of 3D-printing (additive manufacturing) provides an appealing experimental platform for conducting relatively high-fidelity experiments on the buckling of cylinders. However, in addition to geometric precision, there are a number of shortcomings with this approach, and this article seeks to describe the challenges and opportunities associated with the use of 3D-printing in cylinder buckling in general, and probing the robustness of equilibrium configurations in particular. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Probing and dynamics of shock sensitive shells’. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 3, 2024
  3. Abstract Recent rapid thinning of West Antarctic ice shelves are believed to be caused by intrusions of warm deep water that induce basal melting and seaward meltwater export. This study uses data from three bottom-mounted mooring arrays to show seasonal variability and local forcing for the currents moving into and out of the Dotson ice shelf cavity. A southward flow of warm, salty water had maximum current velocities along the eastern channel slope, while northward outflows of freshened ice shelf meltwater spread at intermediate depth above the western slope. The inflow correlated with the local ocean surface stress curl. At the western slope, meltwater outflows followed the warm influx along the eastern slope with a ~2–3 month delay. Ocean circulation near Dotson Ice Shelf, affected by sea ice distribution and wind, appears to significantly control the inflow of warm water and subsequent ice shelf melting on seasonal time-scales. 
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