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  1. A nanoporous Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite with a gyroid nanostructure was fabricated by using a nanoporous polymer with gyroid nanochannels as a template. The polymer template was obtained from the self-assembly of a degradable block copolymer, polystyrene- b -poly( l -lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by the hydrolysis of PLLA blocks. Templated electroless plating followed by calcination was performed to create a precisely controlled Ni/NiO gyroid nanostructure. After carbon coating, a well-interconnected nanoporous gyroid Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite can be successfully fabricated. Benefiting from the well-interconnected nanoporous structure with ultrafine transition metal oxide and uniform carbon coating, the gyroid nanoporous Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite electrodes exhibited high specific capacities at various rates (1240 mA h g −1 at 0.2 A g −1 , 902 mA h g −1 at 2 A g −1 and 424 mA h g −1 at 10 A g −1 ) and excellent cyclability (809 mA h g −1 at 1 A g −1 after 1000 cycles, average coulombic efficiency 99.86%). This research demonstrates a universal approach for constructing a nanostructured electrode with explicitly controlled block copolymer phase separation. 
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