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  1. Aeromechanics of highly flexible flapping wings is a complex nonlinear fluid–structure interaction problem and, therefore, cannot be analyzed using conventional linear aeroelasticity methods. This paper presents a standalone coupled aeroelastic framework for highly flexible flapping wings in hover for micro air vehicle (MAV) applications. The MAV-scale flapping wing structure is modeled using fully nonlinear beam and shell finite elements. A potential-flow-based unsteady aerodynamic model is then coupled with the structural model to generate the coupled aeroelastic framework. Both the structural and aerodynamic models are validated independently before coupling. Instantaneous lift force and wing deflection predictions from the coupled aeroelastic simulations are compared with the force and deflection measurements (using digital image correlation) obtained from in-house flapping wing experiments at both moderate (13 Hz) and high (20 Hz) flapping frequencies. Coupled trim analysis is then performed by simultaneously solving wing response equations and vehicle trim equations until trim controls, wing elastic response, inflow and circulation converge all together. The dependence of control inputs on weight and center of gravity (cg) location of the vehicle is studied for the hovering flight case. 
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  2. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) has long been studied from many perspectives. As a multisubunit (large subunits [LSUs] and small subunits[SSUs]) protein encoded by genes residing in the chloroplast ( rbcL ) and nuclear ( rbcS ) genomes, RuBisCo also is a model for cytonuclear coevolution following allopolyploid speciation in plants. Here, we studied the genomic and transcriptional cytonuclear coordination of auxiliary chaperonin and chaperones that facilitate RuBisCo biogenesis across multiple natural and artificially synthesized plant allopolyploids. We found similar genomic and transcriptional cytonuclear responses, including respective paternal-to-maternal conversions and maternal homeologous biased expression, in chaperonin/chaperon-assisted folding and assembly of RuBisCo in different allopolyploids. One observation is about the temporally attenuated genomic and transcriptional cytonuclear evolutionary responses during early folding and later assembly process of RuBisCo biogenesis, which were established by long-term evolution and immediate onset of allopolyploidy, respectively. Our study not only points to the potential widespread and hitherto unrecognized features of cytonuclear evolution but also bears implications for the structural interaction interface between LSU and Cpn60 chaperonin and the functioning stage of the Raf2 chaperone. 
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  3. Informed by a constructivist-based, student-adaptive pedagogical approach, this study explores the benefits of teacher–learner discourse moves for the mathematics learning of students with learning disabilities (LD). During a constructivist teaching experiment for nurturing the multiplicative reasoning and problem solving of five third-grade students with school-identified LD, we analyzed the global trends and detailed dynamics of teacher–student interactions with statistical discourse analysis. We found that the teacher’s discourse moves to support each individual student’s problem solving helped engage them in mathematical reasoning, which improved their problem-solving performance. Thus, this study contributes to knowledge in the field of special education by (a) specifying ways in which discourse-oriented mathematics instruction can help each student with LD and (b) showcasing a novel statistical analysis of teacher–student discourse.

     
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  4. Wright, Stephen (Ed.)
    Abstract The Triticum/Aegilops complex includes hybrid species resulting from homoploid hybrid speciation and allopolyploid speciation. Sequential allotetra- and allohexaploidy events presumably result in two challenges for the hybrids, which involve 1) cytonuclear stoichiometric disruptions caused by combining two diverged nuclear genomes with the maternal inheritance of the cytoplasmic organellar donor; and 2) incompatibility of chimeric protein complexes with diverged subunits from nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes. Here, we describe coevolution of nuclear rbcS genes encoding the small subunits of Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and nuclear genes encoding plastid translocons, which mediate recognition and translocation of nuclear-encoded proteins into plastids, in allopolyploid wheat species. We demonstrate that intergenomic paternal-to-maternal gene conversion specifically occurred in the genic region of the homoeologous rbcS3 gene from the D-genome progenitor of wheat (abbreviated as rbcS3D) such that it encodes a maternal-like or B-subgenome-like SSU3D transit peptide in allohexaploid wheat but not in allotetraploid wheat. Divergent and limited interaction between SSU3D and the D-subgenomic TOC90D translocon subunit is implicated to underpin SSU3D targeting into the chloroplast of hexaploid wheat. This implicates early selection favoring individuals harboring optimal maternal-like organellar SSU3D targeting in hexaploid wheat. These data represent a novel dimension of cytonuclear evolution mediated by organellar targeting and transportation of nuclear proteins. 
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  5. Abstract

    Controlling the surface structure of metal nanocrystals while maximizing the utilization efficiency of the atoms is a subject of great importance. An emerging strategy that has captured the attention of many research groups involves the conformal deposition of one metal as an ultrathin shell (typically 1–6 atomic layers) onto the surface of a seed made of another metal and covered by a set of well‐defined facets. This approach forces the deposited metal to faithfully replicate the surface atomic structure of the seed while at the same time serving to minimize the usage of the deposited metal. Here, the recent progress in this area is discussed and analyzed by focusing on the synthetic and mechanistic requisites necessary for achieving surface atomic replication of precious metals. Other related methods are discussed, including the one‐pot synthesis, electrochemical deposition, and skin‐layer formation through thermal annealing. To close, some of the synergies that arise when the thickness of the deposited shell is decreased controllably down to a few atomic layers are highlighted, along with how the control of thickness can be used to uncover the optimal physicochemical properties necessary for boosting the performance toward a range of catalytic reactions.

     
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