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  1. We have investigated the influence of non-stoichiometry and local atomic environments on carrier transport in GaAs(N)Bi alloy films using local-electrode atom probe tomography (LEAP) in conjunction with time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements. The local concentrations of N, Bi, and excess As, as well as Bi pair correlations, are quantified using LEAP. Using time-resolved THz photoconductivity measurements, we show that carrier transport is primarily limited by excess As, with the highest carrier mobilities for layers with yBi > 0.035.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 8, 2025
  2. We probe the conduction-band offsets (CBOs) and confined states at GaAs/GaAsNBi quantum wells (QWs). Using a combination of capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements and self-consistent Schrödinger–Poisson simulations based on the effective mass approximation, we identify an N-fraction dependent increase in CBO, consistent with trends predicted by the band anti-crossing model. Using the computed confined electron states in conjunction with photoluminescence spectroscopy data, we show that N mainly influences the conduction band and confined electron states, with a relatively small effect on the valence band and confined hole states in the quaternary QWs. This work provides important insight toward tailoring CBO and confined electron energies, both needed for optimizing infrared optoelectronic devices.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 6, 2024
  3. The Colorado River Basin (CRB) supports the water supply for seven states and forty million people in the Western United States (US) and has been suffering an extensive drought for more than two decades. As climate change continues to reshape water resources distribution in the CRB, its impact can differ in intensity and location, resulting in variations in human adaptation behaviors. The feedback from human systems in response to the environmental changes and the associated uncertainty is critical to water resources management, especially for water-stressed basins. This paper investigates how human adaptation affects water scarcity uncertainty in the CRB and highlights the uncertainties in human behavior modeling. Our focus is on agricultural water consumption, as approximately 80% of the water consumption in the CRB is used in agriculture. We adopted a coupled agent-based and water resources modeling approach for exploring human-water system dynamics, in which an agent is a human behavior model that simulates a farmer’s water consumption decisions. We examined uncertainties at the system, agent, and parameter levels through uncertainty, clustering, and sensitivity analyses. The uncertainty analysis results suggest that the CRB water system may experience 13 to 30 years of water shortage during the 2019–2060 simulation period, depending on the paths of farmers’ adaptation. The clustering analysis identified three decision-making classes: bold, prudent, and forward-looking, and quantified the probabilities of an agent belonging to each class. The sensitivity analysis results indicated agents whose decision making models require further investigation and the parameters with the higher uncertainty reduction potentials. By conducting numerical experiments with the coupled model, this paper presents quantitative and qualitative information about farmers’ adaptation, water scarcity uncertainties, and future research directions for improving human behavior modeling. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2025
  5. Abstract

    We present Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM) and Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT) searches for gamma-ray/X-ray counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) candidate events identified during the third observing run of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. Using Fermi-GBM onboard triggers and subthreshold gamma-ray burst (GRB) candidates found in the Fermi-GBM ground analyses, the Targeted Search and the Untargeted Search, we investigate whether there are any coincident GRBs associated with the GWs. We also search the Swift-BAT rate data around the GW times to determine whether a GRB counterpart is present. No counterparts are found. Using both the Fermi-GBM Targeted Search and the Swift-BAT search, we calculate flux upper limits and present joint upper limits on the gamma-ray luminosity of each GW. Given these limits, we constrain theoretical models for the emission of gamma rays from binary black hole mergers.

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  6. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for new physics in top quark production with additional final-state leptons is performed using data collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV at the LHC during 2016–2018. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1. Using the framework of effective field theory (EFT), potential new physics effects are parametrized in terms of 26 dimension-six EFT operators. The impacts of EFT operators are incorporated through the event-level reweighting of Monte Carlo simulations, which allows for detector-level predictions. The events are divided into several categories based on lepton multiplicity, total lepton charge, jet multiplicity, and b-tagged jet multiplicity. Kinematic variables corresponding to the transverse momentum (pT) of the leading pair of leptons and/or jets as well as thepTof on-shell Z bosons are used to extract the 95% confidence intervals of the 26 Wilson coefficients corresponding to these EFT operators. No significant deviation with respect to the standard model prediction is found.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024