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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2023
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  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry studies are used to investigate the structure and bonding of AuB 8 − . Global minimum sturctural searches show that AuB 8 − possesses a chair-like structure, which can be viewed as Au + bonded to the edge of the doubly-aromatic B 8 2− borozene, Au + [η 2 -B 8 2− ]. Chemical bonding analyses reveal that the AuB 8 − is a novel borozene complex with unique Au–borozene bonding.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 3, 2023
  6. Naturally occurring enzymes can be a source of unnatural reactivity that can be molded by directed evolution to generate efficient biocatalysts with valuable activities. Owing to the lack of exploitable stereocontrol elements in synthetic systems, steering the absolute and relative stereochemistry of free-radical processes is notoriously difficult in asymmetric catalysis. Inspired by the innate redox properties of first-row transition-metal cofactors, we repurposed cytochromes P450 to catalyze stereoselective atom-transfer radical cyclization. A set of metalloenzymes was engineered to impose substantial stereocontrol over the radical addition step and the halogen rebound step in these unnatural processes, allowing enantio- and diastereodivergent radical catalysis.more »This evolvable metalloenzyme platform represents a promising solution to tame fleeting radical intermediates for asymmetric catalysis.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 24, 2022
  7. Abstract Deriving effective mobility control measures is critical for the control of COVID-19 spreading. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions implemented travel restrictions and quarantines to reduce human mobility and thus reduce virus transmission. But since human mobility decreased heterogeneously, we lack empirical evidence of the extent to which the reductions in mobility alter the way people from different regions of cities are connected, and what containment policies could complement mobility reductions to conquer the pandemic. Here, we examined individual movements in 21 of the most affected counties in the United States, showing that mobility reductionmore »leads to a segregated place network and alters its relationship with pandemic spread. Our findings suggest localized area-specific policies, such as geo-fencing, as viable alternatives to city-wide lockdown for conquering the pandemic after mobility was reduced.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. Employing the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) effect for promoting the catalyst's activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is promising due to the electronic structure optimization and high utilization efficiency of platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts. Metal oxides as alternative supports for PGMs facilitate intrinsic activity and improve durability as compared to conventional carbon supports. However, the restricted mass and electron transfer at the metal/support interface need to be addressed. Herein, to strengthen the interaction at the metal/support interfaces and improve the utilization efficiency of PGM, an ultralow loading of Pd was embedded in a surface-oxygenated PdNiMnO porous film. Themore »Mn-doping was designed to promote surface oxygenation using a facile anodization process that created sufficiently exposed interfaces between Pd and the support, strengthening the SMSI effects at the Pd/oxygenated support interface for enhancing ORR performance. Furthermore, the Ni-containing oxygenated catalyst served as both the active component for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the functional support for stabilizing Pd, making PdNiMnO a bifunctional catalyst for zinc–air flow batteries (ZAFB). As a proof-of-concept, the ZAFB (PdNiMnO) shows a maximal power density of 211.6 mW cm −2 and outstanding cycling stability for over 2000 h with a minimal voltage gap of 0.69 V at a current density of 10 mA cm −2 , superior to the state-of-the-art catalysts.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 18, 2023
  9. null (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  10. Abstract The objective of this study is to examine the transmission risk of COVID-19 based on cross-county population co-location data from Facebook. The rapid spread of COVID-19 in the United States has imposed a major threat to public health, the real economy, and human well-being. With the absence of effective vaccines, the preventive actions of social distancing, travel reduction and stay-at-home orders are recognized as essential non-pharmacologic approaches to control the infection and spatial spread of COVID-19. Prior studies demonstrated that human movement and mobility drove the spatiotemporal distribution of COVID-19 in China. Little is known, however, about the patternsmore »and effects of co-location reduction on cross-county transmission risk of COVID-19. This study utilizes Facebook co-location data for all counties in the United States from March to early May 2020 for conducting spatial network analysis where nodes represent counties and edge weights are associated with the co-location probability of populations of the counties. The analysis examines the synchronicity and time lag between travel reduction and pandemic growth trajectory to evaluate the efficacy of social distancing in ceasing the population co-location probabilities, and subsequently the growth in weekly new cases across counties. The results show that the mitigation effects of co-location reduction appear in the growth of weekly new confirmed cases with one week of delay. The analysis categorizes counties based on the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and examines co-location patterns within and across groups. Significant segregation is found among different county groups. The results suggest that within-group co-location probabilities (e.g., co-location probabilities among counties with high numbers of cases) remain stable, and social distancing policies primarily resulted in reduced cross-group co-location probabilities (due to travel reduction from counties with large number of cases to counties with low numbers of cases). These findings could have important practical implications for local governments to inform their intervention measures for monitoring and reducing the spread of COVID-19, as well as for adoption in future pandemics. Public policy, economic forecasting, and epidemic modeling need to account for population co-location patterns in evaluating transmission risk of COVID-19 across counties.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022