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  1. Ergodicity, the central tenet of statistical mechanics, requires an isolated system to explore all available phase space constrained by energy and symmetry. Mechanisms for violating ergodicity are of interest for probing nonequilibrium matter and protecting quantum coherence in complex systems. Polyatomic molecules have long served as a platform for probing ergodicity breaking in vibrational energy transport. Here, we report the observation of rotational ergodicity breaking in an unprecedentedly large molecule,12C60, determined from its icosahedral rovibrational fine structure. The ergodicity breaking occurs well below the vibrational ergodicity threshold and exhibits multiple transitions between ergodic and nonergodic regimes with increasing angular momentum. These peculiar dynamics result from the molecule’s distinctive combination of symmetry, size, and rigidity, highlighting its relevance to emergent phenomena in mesoscopic quantum systems.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 18, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Existing experimental demonstrations of quantum computational advantage have had the limitation that verifying the correctness of the quantum device requires exponentially costly classical computations. Here we propose and analyse an interactive protocol for demonstrating quantum computational advantage, which is efficiently classically verifiable. Our protocol relies on a class of cryptographic tools called trapdoor claw-free functions. Although this type of function has been applied to quantum advantage protocols before, our protocol employs a surprising connection to Bell’s inequality to avoid the need for a demanding cryptographic property called the adaptive hardcore bit, while maintaining essentially no increase in the quantum circuit complexity and no extra assumptions. Leveraging the relaxed cryptographic requirements of the protocol, we present two trapdoor claw-free function constructions, based on Rabin’s function and the Diffie–Hellman problem, which have not been used in this context before. We also present two independent innovations that improve the efficiency of our implementation and can be applied to other quantum cryptographic protocols. First, we give a scheme to discard so-called garbage bits, removing the need for reversibility in the quantum circuits. Second, we show a natural way of performing postselection that reduces the fidelity needed to demonstrate quantum advantage. Combining these results, we describe a blueprint for implementing our protocol on Rydberg atom-based quantum devices, using hardware-native operations that have already been demonstrated experimentally.

     
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  4. Monitoring spin transport reveals anomalous hydrodynamic behavior in quantum magnetic chains. 
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