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  1. Abstract This work studies the use of laser shock peening (LSP) to improve back stress in additively manufactured (AM) 316L parts. Unusual hardening behavior in AM metal due to tortuous microstructure and strong texture poses additional design challenges. Anisotropic mechanical behavior complicates application for mechanical design because 3D printed parts will behave differently than traditionally manufactured parts under the same loading conditions. The prevalence of back-stress hardening or the Bauschinger effect causes reduced fatigue life under random loading and dissipates beneficial compressive residual stresses that prevent crack propagation. LSP is known to improve fatigue life by inducing compressive residual stress and has been applied with promising results to AM metal parts. It is here demonstrated that LSP may also be used as a tool for mitigating tensile back-stress hardening in AM parts, thereby reducing anisotropic hardening behavior and improving design use. It is also shown that the method of application of LSP to additively manufactured parts is key for achieving effective back-stress reduction. Back stress is extracted from additively manufactured dog bone samples built in both XY and XZ directions using hysteresis tensile. Both LSPed and as-built conditions are tested and compared, showing that LSPed samples exhibit a significant reductionmore »to back stress when the laser processing is applied to the sample along the build direction. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) performed under these conditions elucidates how grain morphologies and texture contribute to the observed improvement. Crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling develops insights as to the mechanisms by which this reduction is achieved in comparison with EBSD results. In particular, the difference in plastic behavior across build orientations of identified crystal planes and grain families are shown to impact the degree of LSP-induced back-stress reduction that is sustained through tensile loading.« less
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  4. Abstract Laser shock peening (LSP) is investigated as a potential tool for reducing tensile back stress, shown here applied to rolled and annealed 304L austenitic steel. The back stress of treated and untreated dog-bone samples is extracted from hysteresis tensile testing. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) analysis quantify the geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density distribution of unstrained and strained as well as unpeened and peened conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation models back stress and residual stress development through tensile testing and LSP treatment using known LSP pressure models and Ziegler's nonlinear kinematic hardening law. Nonlinear regression fitting of tensile testing stress–strain in as-received specimens extracts the kinematic hardening parameters that are used in numerical study. This research shows LSP may be used to overcome manufacturing design challenges presented by yield asymmetry due to back stress in rolled steel.
  5. Abstract Metal foam is light in weight and exhibits an excellent impact-absorbing capability. Laser forming has emerged as a promising process in shaping metal foam plates into desired geometry. While the feasibility and shaping mechanism has been studied, the effect of the laser forming process on the mechanical properties and the energy-absorbing behavior in particular of the formed foam parts has not been well understood. This study comparatively investigated such effect on as-received and laser-formed closed-cell aluminum alloy foam. In quasi-static compression tests, attention paid to the changes in the elastic region. Imperfections near the laser-irradiated surface were closely examined and used to help elucidate the similarities and differences in as-received and laser-formed specimens. Similarly, from the impact tests, differences in deformation and specific energy absorption were focused on, while relative density distribution and evolution of foam specimens were numerically investigated.

    We present a sample of 14 hydrogen-rich superluminous supernovae (SLSNe II) from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) between 2018 and 2020. We include all classified SLSNe with peaks Mg < −20 mag with observed broad but not narrow Balmer emission, corresponding to roughly 20 per cent of all hydrogen-rich SLSNe in ZTF phase I. We examine the light curves and spectra of SLSNe II and attempt to constrain their power source using light-curve models. The brightest events are photometrically and spectroscopically similar to the prototypical SN 2008es, while others are found spectroscopically more reminiscent of non-superluminous SNe II, especially SNe II-L. 56Ni decay as the primary power source is ruled out. Light-curve models generally cannot distinguish between circumstellar interaction (CSI) and a magnetar central engine, but an excess of ultraviolet (UV) emission signifying CSI is seen in most of the SNe with UV data, at a wide range of photometric properties. Simultaneously, the broad H α profiles of the brightest SLSNe II can be explained through electron scattering in a symmetric circumstellar medium (CSM). In other SLSNe II without narrow lines, the CSM may be confined and wholly overrun by the ejecta. CSI, possibly involving mass lost in recent eruptions, is implied to be the dominant power source inmore »most SLSNe II, and the diversity in properties is likely the result of different mass loss histories. Based on their radiated energy, an additional power source may be required for the brightest SLSNe II, however – possibly a central engine combined with CSI.

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