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  1. Abstract

    The preparation of a new class of reactive porous solids, prepared via straightforward salt metathesis reactions, is described here. Reaction of the dimethylammonium salt of a magnesium‐based porous coordination cage with the chloride salt of [CrIICl(Me4cyclam)]+affords a porous solid with concomitant removal of dimethylammonium chloride. The salt consists of the ions combined in the expected ratio based on their charge as confirmed by UV–vis and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopies, ion chromatography (IC), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS). The porous salt boasts a Brunauer‐Emmett‐Teller (BET) surface area of 213 m2 g−1. Single crystal X‐ray diffraction reveals the chromium(II) cations in the structure reside in the interstitial space between porous cages. Importantly, the chromium(II) centers, previously shown to react with O2to afford reactive chromium(III)‐superoxide adducts, are still accessible in the solid state as confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy. The site‐isolated reactive centers have competence toward hydrogen atom abstraction chemistry and display significantly increased stability and reactivity as compared to dissolved ions.

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  2. Abstract

    Proline residues within proteins lack a traditional hydrogen bond donor. However, the hydrogens of the proline ring are all sterically accessible, with polarized C−H bonds at Hα and Hδ that exhibit greater partial positive character and can be utilized as alternative sites for molecular recognition. C−H/O interactions, between proline C−H bonds and oxygen lone pairs, have been previously identified as modes of recognition within protein structures and for higher‐order assembly of protein structures. In order to better understand intermolecular recognition of proline residues, a series of proline derivatives was synthesized, including 4R‐hydroxyproline nitrobenzoate methyl ester, acylated on the proline nitrogen with bromoacetyl and glycolyl groups, and Boc‐4S‐(4‐iodophenyl)hydroxyproline methyl amide. All three derivatives exhibited multiple close intermolecular C−H/O interactions in the crystallographic state, with H⋅⋅⋅O distances as close as 2.3 Å. These observed distances are well below the 2.72 Å sum of the van der Waals radii of H and O, and suggest that these interactions are particularly favorable. In order to generalize these results, we further analyzed the role of C−H/O interactions in all previously crystallized derivatives of these amino acids, and found that all 26 structures exhibited close intermolecular C−H/O interactions. Finally, we analyzed all proline residues in the Cambridge Structural Database of small‐molecule crystal structures. We found that the majority of these structures exhibited intermolecular C−H/O interactions at proline C−H bonds, suggesting that C−H/O interactions are an inherent and important mode for recognition of and higher‐order assembly at proline residues. Due to steric accessibility and multiple polarized C−H bonds, proline residues are uniquely positioned as sites for binding and recognition via C−H/O interactions.

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