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  1. Deep-learning (DL)-based object detection algorithms can greatly benefit the community at large in fighting fires, advancing climate intelligence, and reducing health complications caused by hazardous smoke particles. Existing DL-based techniques, which are mostly based on convolutional networks, have proven to be effective in wildfire detection. However, there is still room for improvement. First, existing methods tend to have some commercial aspects, with limited publicly available data and models. In addition, studies aiming at the detection of wildfires at the incipient stage are rare. Smoke columns at this stage tend to be small, shallow, and often far from view, with low visibility. This makes finding and labeling enough data to train an efficient deep learning model very challenging. Finally, the inherent locality of convolution operators limits their ability to model long-range correlations between objects in an image. Recently, encoder–decoder transformers have emerged as interesting solutions beyond natural language processing to help capture global dependencies via self- and inter-attention mechanisms. We propose Nemo: a set of evolving, free, and open-source datasets, processed in standard COCO format, and wildfire smoke and fine-grained smoke density detectors, for use by the research community. We adapt Facebook’s DEtection TRansformer (DETR) to wildfire detection, which results inmore »a much simpler technique, where the detection does not rely on convolution filters and anchors. Nemo is the first open-source benchmark for wildfire smoke density detection and Transformer-based wildfire smoke detection tailored to the early incipient stage. Two popular object detection algorithms (Faster R-CNN and RetinaNet) are used as alternatives and baselines for extensive evaluation. Our results confirm the superior performance of the transformer-based method in wildfire smoke detection across different object sizes. Moreover, we tested our model with 95 video sequences of wildfire starts from the public HPWREN database. Our model detected 97.9% of the fires in the incipient stage and 80% within 5 min from the start. On average, our model detected wildfire smoke within 3.6 min from the start, outperforming the baselines.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023