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  1. During in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, a chemical or biological amendment is introduced into the contaminant plume to react with the contaminant. Reactions occur only where the amendment and contaminant are in contact with each other, so active spreading has been proposed to increase the contact area between the two reactants. With active spreading, wells are installed in the vicinity of the contaminant plume and are operated in a pre-defined sequence of injections and extractions to create a spatio-temporally varying flow field that changes the shapes of the reactant plumes, generally leading to an increase in contact area and therefore an increase in reaction. The design of the active spreading system depends on the reaction chemistry of the contaminant. This study considers active spreading scenarios for contaminants with three different types of reactions: (1) non-sorbing aqueous contaminant, A, that degrades irreversibly to a benign chemical, C, through reaction with a non-sorbing aqueous amendment, B; (2) sorbing contaminant, A, the degrades irreversibly to a benign chemical, C, through reaction with a non-sorbing aqueous amendment, B, where sorption of A is independent of the concentration of B; and (3) contaminant, A, that exhibits reversible equilibrium surface complexation with concentrations in the mobile and immobile phases dependent on the concentration of the amendment, B. We compare the active spreading strategies for these three types of reactions and identify the characteristics each strategy that lead to enhanced removal of groundwater contaminants. 
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  2. Abstract We present Raman-scattering results for three materials, CeB 6 , TbInO 3 , and YbRu 2 Ge 2 , to illustrate the essential aspects of crystal-field (CF) excitations and quadrupolar fluctuations of 4 f -electron systems. For CF excitations, we illustrate how the 4 f orbits are split by spin-orbit coupling and CF potential by presenting spectra for inter- and intra-multiplet excitations over a large energy range. We discuss identification of the CF ground state and establishment of low-energy CF level scheme from the symmetry and energy of measured CF excitations. In addition, we demonstrate that the CF linewidth is a sensitive probe of electron correlation by virtue of self-energy effect. For quadrupolar fluctuations, we discuss both ferroquadrupolar (FQ) and antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) cases. Long-wavelength quadrupolar fluctuations of the same symmetry as the FQ order parameter persists well above the transition temperature, from which the strength of electronic intersite quadrupolar interaction can be evaluated. The tendency towards AFQ ordering induces ferromagnetic correlation between neighboring 4 f -ion sites, leading to long-wavelength magnetic fluctuations. 
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  3. Abstract The prediction of reactor antineutrino spectra will play a crucial role as reactor experiments enter the precision era. The positron energy spectrum of 3.5 million antineutrino inverse beta decay reactions observed by the Daya Bay experiment, in combination with the fission rates of fissile isotopes in the reactor, is used to extract the positron energy spectra resulting from the fission of specific isotopes. This information can be used to produce a precise, data-based prediction of the antineutrino energy spectrum in other reactor antineutrino experiments with different fission fractions than Daya Bay. The positron energy spectra are unfolded to obtain the antineutrino energy spectra by removing the contribution from detector response with the Wiener-SVD unfolding method. Consistent results are obtained with other unfolding methods. A technique to construct a data-based prediction of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum is proposed and investigated. Given the reactor fission fractions, the technique can predict the energy spectrum to a 2% precision. In addition, we illustrate how to perform a rigorous comparison between the unfolded antineutrino spectrum and a theoretical model prediction that avoids the input model bias of the unfolding method. 
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