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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 3, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 3, 2024
  3. Abstract Electron band topology is combined with intrinsic magnetic orders in MnBi 2 Te 4 , leading to novel quantum phases. Here we investigate collective spin excitations (i.e. magnons) and spin fluctuations in atomically thin MnBi 2 Te 4 flakes using Raman spectroscopy. In a two-septuple layer with non-trivial topology, magnon characteristics evolve as an external magnetic field tunes the ground state through three ordered phases: antiferromagnet, canted antiferromagnet, and ferromagnet. The Raman selection rules are determined by both the crystal symmetry and magnetic order while the magnon energy is determined by different interaction terms. Using non-interacting spin-wave theory, we extract the spin-wave gap at zero magnetic field, an anisotropy energy, and interlayer exchange in bilayers. We also find magnetic fluctuations increase with reduced thickness, which may contribute to a less robust magnetic order in single layers. 
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    We used a combination of polarized Raman spectroscopy experiment and model magnetism–phonon coupling calculations to study the rich magneto-Raman effect in the two-dimensional (2D) magnet CrI 3 . We reveal a layered-magnetism–assisted phonon scattering mechanism below the magnetic onset temperature, whose Raman excitation breaks time-reversal symmetry, has an antisymmetric Raman tensor, and follows the magnetic phase transitions across critical magnetic fields, on top of the presence of the conventional phonon scattering with symmetric Raman tensors in N -layer CrI 3 . We resolve in data and by calculations that the first-order A g phonon of the monolayer splits into an N -fold multiplet in N -layer CrI 3 due to the interlayer coupling ( N ≥ 2 ) and that the phonons within the multiplet show distinct magnetic field dependence because of their different layered-magnetism–phonon coupling. We further find that such a layered-magnetism–phonon coupled Raman scattering mechanism extends beyond first-order to higher-order multiphonon scattering processes. Our results on the magneto-Raman effect of the first-order phonons in the multiplet and the higher-order multiphonons in N -layer CrI 3 demonstrate the rich and strong behavior of emergent magneto-optical effects in 2D magnets and underline the unique opportunities of spin–phonon physics in van der Waals layered magnets. 
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