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  1. Schilder, Rudolf (Ed.)
    Abstract Parasitoids comprise a speciose insect group, displaying a wide array of life history strategies. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the tephritid fruit flies Rhagoletis tabellaria (Fitch) and Rhagoletis indifferens Curran infest red osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (Cornaceae), and bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae), respectively. The flies are parasitized by different braconid wasps at different life stages; Utetes tabellariae (Fischer) oviposits into R. tabellaria eggs, whereas Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) oviposits into R. indifferens larvae feeding in cherries. Because Rhagoletis only have one major generation a year and the wasps attack temporally distinct fly life stages, we predicted that eclosion times of U. tabellariae should more closely follow that of its host than the larval-attacking D. muliebre. As predicted, U. tabellariae eclosed on average 6.0–12.5 d later than R. tabellaria, whereas D. muliebre eclosed on average 32.1 d after R. indifferens. Unexpectedly, however, longer chill duration differentially affected the systems; longer overwinters minimally influenced eclosion times of R. tabellaria and U. tabellariae but caused earlier eclosion of both R. indifferens and D. muliebre. Results imply that in temperate regions, diapause timing in braconid wasps evolves in response to both host life stage attacked and fly eclosion characteristics, possibly reflecting differential effects of winter on host plant fruiting phenology. Differences in phenological sensitivity of the lower host plant trophic level to variation in environmental conditions may have cascading effects, sequentially and differentially affecting eclosion times in higher frugivore (fly) and parasitoid (wasp) trophic levels. 
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  2. Schilder, Rudolf (Ed.)
    Abstract Closely related phytophagous insects that specialize on different host plants may have divergent responses to environmental factors. Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) and Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae) are sibling, sympatric fly species found in western North America that attack and mate on plants of Rosaceae (~60 taxa) and Caprifoliaceae (three taxa), respectively, likely contributing to partial reproductive isolation. Rhagoletis zephyria evolved from R. pomonella and is native to western North America, whereas R. pomonella was introduced there. Given that key features of the flies’ ecology, breeding compatibility, and evolution differ, we predicted that adult eclosion patterns of the two flies from Washington State, USA are also distinct. When puparia were chilled, eclosion of apple- and black hawthorn-origin R. pomonella was significantly more dispersed, with less pronounced peaks, than of snowberry-origin R. zephyria within sympatric and nonsympatric site comparisons. Percentages of chilled puparia that produced adults were ≥67% for both species. However, when puparia were not chilled, from 13.5 to 21.9% of apple-origin R. pomonella versus only 1.2% to 1.9% of R. zephyria eclosed. The distinct differences in eclosion traits of R. pomonella and R. zephyria could be due to greater genetic variation in R. pomonella, associated with its use of a wider range of host plants than R. zephyria. 
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  3. Abstract Insect pests destroy ~15% of all U.S. crops, resulting in losses of $15 billion annually. Thus, developing cheap, quick, and reliable methods for detecting harmful species is critical to curtail insect damage and lessen economic impact. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, is a major invasive pest threatening the multibillion-dollar apple industry in the Pacific Northwest United States. The fly is also sympatric with a benign but morphologically similar and genetically closely related species, R. zephyria, which attacks noncommercial snowberry. Unambiguous species identification is essential due to a zero-infestation policy of apple maggot for fruit export. Mistaking R. zephyria for R. pomonella triggers unnecessary and costly quarantines, diverting valuable control resources. Here we develop and apply a relatively simple and cost-effective diagnostic approach using Illumina sequencing of double-digest restriction site-associated DNA markers. We identified five informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and designed a diagnostic test based on agarose gel electrophoresis of restriction enzyme-digested polymerase chain reaction amplification products (RFLPs) to distinguish fly species. We demonstrated the utility of this approach for immediate, 1-d species identification by scoring apple- and snowberry-infesting flies from known hosts, reared from fruit collected at 11 sites throughout Washington. However, if immediate diagnosis is not required, or hundreds to thousands of specimens must be assessed, then a direct Illumina-based sequencing strategy, similar to that used here for diagnostic SNP identification, can be powerful and cost-effective. The genomic strategy we present is effective for R. pomonella and also transferable to many cryptic pests. 
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  4. Abstract

    An outstanding issue in the study of insect host races concerns the idea of ‘recursive adaptive divergence’, whereby adaptation can occur repeatedly across space and/or time, and the most recent adaptive episode is defined by one or more previously similar cases. The host plant shift of the apple maggot fly,Rhagoletis pomonella(Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Carpomyini), from ancestral downy hawthorn [Crataegus mollis(Torr. & A. Gray) Scheele] to introduced, domesticated apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) in the eastern USA has long served as a model system for investigating ecologically driven host race formation in phytophagous insect specialists. Here, we report results from an annual geography survey of eclosion time demonstrating a similar ecological pattern among nascent host‐associated populations of the fly recently introduced ca. 40 years ago from its native range in the east into the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA. Specifically, using data collected from 25 locations across 5 years, we show that apple‐infesting fly populations in the PNW have rapidly and repeatedly shifted (and maintained differences in) their adult eclosion life‐history timing to infest two novel hawthorn hosts with different fruiting phenologies – a native species (Crataegus douglasiiLindl.) and an introduced species (Crataegus monogynaJacq.) – generating partial allochronic reproductive isolation in the process. The shifts in the PNW parallel the classic case of host race formation in the eastern USA, but have occurred bi‐directionally to two hawthorn species with phenologies slightly earlier (black hawthorn) and significantly later (ornamental hawthorn) than apple. Our results imply thatR. pomonellacan both possess and retain extensive‐standing variation (i.e., ‘adaptive memory’) in diapause traits, even following introductions, to rapidly and temporally track novel phenological host opportunities when they arise. Thus, ‘specialized’ host races may not constitute evolutionary dead ends. Rather, adaptive phenotypic and genetic memory may carry over from one host shift to the next, recursively facilitating host race formation in phytophagous insects.

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  5. Abstract

    Endosymbiont‐induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) may play an important role in arthropod speciation. However, whether CI consistently becomes associated or coupled with other host‐related forms of reproductive isolation (RI) to impede the transfer of endosymbionts between hybridizing populations and further the divergence process remains an open question. Here, we show that varying degrees of pre‐ and postmating RI exist among allopatric populations of two interbreeding cherry‐infesting tephritid fruit flies (Rhagoletis cingulataandR.indifferens) across North America. These flies display allochronic and sexual isolation among populations, as well as unidirectional reductions in egg hatch in hybrid crosses involving southwestern USA males. All populations are infected by aWolbachiastrain,wCin2, whereas a second strain,wCin3, only co‐infects flies from the southwest USA and Mexico. StrainwCin3 is associated with a unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype and unidirectional postmating RI, implicating the strain as the cause of CI. When coupled with nonendosymbiont RI barriers, we estimate the strength of CI associated withwCin3 would not prevent the strain from introgressing from infected southwestern to uninfected populations elsewhere in the USA if populations were to come into secondary contact and hybridize. In contrast, cytoplasmic–nuclear coupling may impede the transfer ofwCin3 if Mexican and USA populations were to come into contact. We discuss our results in the context of the general paucity of examples demonstrating stableWolbachiahybrid zones and whether the spread ofWolbachiaamong taxa can be constrained in natural hybrid zones long enough for the endosymbiont to participate in speciation.

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