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  1. Lorenzis, Laura (Ed.)
    Green’s function characterizes a partial differential equation (PDE) and maps its solution in the entire domain as integrals. Finding the analytical form of Green’s function is a non-trivial exercise, especially for a PDE defined on a complex domain or a PDE with variable coefficients. In this paper, we propose a novel boundary integral network to learn the domain independent Green’s function, referred to as BIN-G. We evaluate the Green’s function in the BIN-G using a radial basis function (RBF) kernel-based neural network. We train the BIN-G by minimizing the residual of the PDE and the mean squared errors of the solutions to the boundary integral equations for prescribed test functions. By leveraging the symmetry of the Green’s function and controlling refinements of the RBF kernel near the singularity of the Green function, we demonstrate that our numerical scheme enables fast training and accurate evaluation of the Green’s function for PDEs with variable coefficients. The learned Green’s function is independent of the domain geometries, forcing terms, and boundary conditions in the boundary integral formulation. Numerical experiments verify the desired properties of the method and the expected accuracy for the two-dimensional Poisson and Helmholtz equations with variable coefficients. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. It is very important to perform magnetostatic analysis accurately and efficiently when it comes to multi-objective optimization of designs of electromagnetic devices, particularly for inductors, transformers, and electric motors. A kernel free boundary integral method (KFBIM) was studied for analyzing 2D magnetostatic problems. Although KFBIM is accurate and computationally efficient, sharp corners can be a major problem for KFBIM. In this paper, an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based geometry reconstruction is explored to overcome this challenge for smoothening sharp corners. A toroidal inductor core with an airgap (C-core) is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for addressing the sharp corner problem. A numerical example demonstrates that the method works for the variable coefficient PDE. In addition, magnetostatic analysis for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous material is presented for the reconstructed geometry, and results carried out using KFBIM are compared with the results of FEM analysis for the original geometry to show the differences and the potential of the proposed method. 
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