Interactions between species are widely understood to have promoted the diversification of life on Earth, but how interactions spur the formation of new species remains unclear. Interacting species often become locally adapted to each other, but they may also be subject to shared dispersal limitations and environmental conditions. Moreover, theory predicts that different kinds of interactions have different effects on diversification. To better understand how species interactions promote diversification, we compiled population genetic studies of host plants and intimately associated herbivores, parasites, and mutualists. We used Bayesian multiple regressions and the BEDASSLE modeling framework to test whether host and associate population structures were correlated over and above the potentially confounding effects of geography and shared environmental variation. We found that associates' population structure often paralleled their hosts' population structure, and that this effect is robust to accounting for geographic distance and climate. Associate genetic structure was significantly explained by plant genetic structure somewhat more often in antagonistic interactions than in mutualistic ones. This aligns with a key prediction of coevolutionary theory that antagonistic interactions promote diversity through local adaptation of antagonists to hosts, while mutualistic interactions more often promote diversity via the effect of hosts' geographic distribution on mutualists' dispersal.
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Moccia, Marcello (Ed.)Nondisclosure of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, asexual, or otherwise queer (LGBTQA) identities in the workplace is both common and stressful to those who do not disclose. However, we lack direct evidence that nondisclosure of LGBTQA identity affects worker productivity. In two surveys of LGBTQA-identified scientists, we found that those who did not disclose LGBTQA identities in professional settings authored fewer peer-reviewed publications—a concrete productivity cost. In the second survey, which included straight and cisgender participants as a comparison group, we found that LGBTQA participants who disclosed their sexual orientation had publication counts more like non-LGBTQA participants than those who did not disclose, and that all three groups had similar time since first publication given their academic career stage. These results are most consistent with a productivity cost to nondisclosure of LGBTQA identity in professional settings, and suggest a concrete need to improve scientific workplace climates for sexual and gender minorities.more » « less