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  1. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present deep far-infrared observations of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891 obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The maps confirm the detection of thermal emission from the inner circumgalactic medium (halo) and spatially resolve a dusty superbubble and a dust spur (filament). The dust temperature of the halo component is lower than that of the disc but increases across a region of diameter ≈8.0 kpc extending at least 7.7 kpc vertically from one side of the disc, a region we call a superbubble because of its association with thermal X-ray emission and a minimum in the synchrotron scale height. This outflow is breaking through the thick disc and developing into a galactic wind, which is of particular interest because NGC 891 is not considered a starburst galaxy; the star formation rate surface density, 0.03 M⊙ yr−1 kpc−2, and gas fraction, just $10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ in the inner disc, indicate the threshold for wind formation is lower than previous work has suggested. We conclude that the star formation surface density is sufficient for superbubble blowout into the halo, but the cosmic ray electrons may play a critical role in determining whether this outflow develops into a fountain or escapes from the gravitational potential. The high dust-to-gas ratio in the dust spur suggests the material was pulled out of NGC 891 through the collision of a minihalo with the disc of NGC 891. We conclude that NGC 891 offers an example of both feedback and satellite interactions transporting dust into the halo of a typical galaxy. 
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The azimuthal ($$\Delta \varphi $$Δφ) correlation distributions between heavy-flavor decay electrons and associated charged particles are measured in pp and p–Pb collisions at$$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{{NN}}}} = 5.02$$sNN=5.02TeV. Results are reported for electrons with transverse momentum$$44<pT<16$$\textrm{GeV}/c$$GeV/c and pseudorapidity$$|\eta |<0.6$$|η|<0.6. The associated charged particles are selected with transverse momentum$$11<pT<7$$\textrm{GeV}/c$$GeV/c, and relative pseudorapidity separation with the leading electron$$|\Delta \eta | < 1$$|Δη|<1. The correlation measurements are performed to study and characterize the fragmentation and hadronization of heavy quarks. The correlation structures are fitted with a constant and two von Mises functions to obtain the baseline and the near- and away-side peaks, respectively. The results from p–Pb collisions are compared with those from pp collisions to study the effects of cold nuclear matter. In the measured trigger electron and associated particle kinematic regions, the two collision systems give consistent results. The$$\Delta \varphi $$Δφdistribution and the peak observables in pp and p–Pb collisions are compared with calculations from various Monte Carlo event generators.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    Measurements of the production of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV at midrapidity with the ALICE detector are presented down to a transverse momentum (pT) of 0.2 GeV/cand up topT= 35 GeV/c, which is the largest momentum range probed for inclusive electron measurements in ALICE. In p-Pb collisions, the production cross section and the nuclear modification factor of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays are measured in thepTrange 0.5< pT<26 GeV/cat$$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$sNN= 8.16 TeV. The nuclear modification factor is found to be consistent with unity within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. In both collision systems, first measurements of the yields of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in different multiplicity intervals normalised to the multiplicity-integrated yield (self-normalised yield) at midrapidity are reported as a function of the self-normalised charged-particle multiplicity estimated at midrapidity. The self-normalised yields in pp and p-Pb collisions grow faster than linear with the self-normalised multiplicity. A strongpTdependence is observed in pp collisions, where the yield of high-pTelectrons increases faster as a function of multiplicity than the one of low-pTelectrons. The measurement in p-Pb collisions shows nopTdependence within uncertainties. The self-normalised yields in pp and p-Pb collisions are compared with measurements of other heavy-flavour, light-flavour, and strange particles, and with Monte Carlo simulations.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    The production of strange hadrons ($$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Λ, Ξ±, and Ω±), baryon-to-meson ratios (Λ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Ξ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, and Ω/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0), and baryon-to-baryon ratios (Ξ/Λ, Ω/Λ, and Ω/Ξ) associated with jets and the underlying event were measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT) in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV and p Pb collisions at$$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$sNN= 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The inclusive production of the same particle species and the corresponding ratios are also reported. The production of multi-strange hadrons, Ξ±and Ω±, and their associated particle ratios in jets and in the underlying event are measured for the first time. In both pp and p–Pb collisions, the baryon-to-meson and baryon-to-baryon yield ratios measured in jets differ from the inclusive particle production for low and intermediate hadronpT(0.6–6 GeV/c). Ratios measured in the underlying event are in turn similar to those measured for inclusive particle production. In pp collisions, the particle production in jets is compared with Pythia8 predictions with three colour-reconnection implementation modes. None of them fully reproduces the data in the measured hadronpTregion. The maximum deviation is observed for Ξ±and Ω±which reaches a factor of about six. The event multiplicity dependence is further investigated in p−Pb collisions. In contrast to what is observed in the underlying event, there is no significant event-multiplicity dependence for particle production in jets. The presented measurements provide novel constraints on hadronisation and its Monte Carlo description. In particular, they demonstrate that the fragmentation of jets alone is insufficient to describe the strange and multi-strange particle production in hadronic collisions at LHC energies.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  8. Abstract A newly developed observable for correlations between symmetry planes, which characterize the direction of the anisotropic emission of produced particles, is measured in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_\text {NN}}$$ s NN  = 2.76 TeV with ALICE. This so-called Gaussian Estimator allows for the first time the study of these quantities without the influence of correlations between different flow amplitudes. The centrality dependence of various correlations between two, three and four symmetry planes is presented. The ordering of magnitude between these symmetry plane correlations is discussed and the results of the Gaussian Estimator are compared with measurements of previously used estimators. The results utilizing the new estimator lead to significantly smaller correlations than reported by studies using the Scalar Product method. Furthermore, the obtained symmetry plane correlations are compared to state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model calculations for the evolution of heavy-ion collisions. While the model predictions provide a qualitative description of the data, quantitative agreement is not always observed, particularly for correlators with significant non-linear response of the medium to initial state anisotropies of the collision system. As these results provide unique and independent information, their usage in future Bayesian analysis can further constrain our knowledge on the properties of the QCD matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    A study of multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons measured in pp and p–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon collision of$$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$$sNN=5.02 TeV using the ALICE detector in the forward pseudorapidity region 2.3 $$<~\eta _\textrm{lab} ~<$$<ηlab< 3.9 is presented. Measurements in p–Pb collisions are reported for two beam configurations in which the directions of the proton and lead ion beam were reversed. The pseudorapidity distributions in p–Pb collisions are obtained for seven centrality classes which are defined based on different event activity estimators, i.e., the charged-particle multiplicity measured at midrapidity as well as the energy deposited in a calorimeter at beam rapidity. The inclusive photon multiplicity distributions for both pp and p–Pb collisions are described by double negative binomial distributions. The pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons are compared to those of charged particles at midrapidity in pp collisions and for different centrality classes in p–Pb collisions. The results are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators. None of the generators considered in this paper reproduces the inclusive photon multiplicity distributions in the reported multiplicity range. The pseudorapidity distributions are, however, better described by the same generators.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  10. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    This article reports measurements of the angle between differently defined jet axes in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 5.02 TeV carried out by the ALICE Collaboration. Charged particles at midrapidity are clustered into jets with resolution parametersR= 0.2 and 0.4. The jet axis, before and after Soft Drop grooming, is compared to the jet axis from the Winner-Takes-All (WTA) recombination scheme. The angle between these axes, ∆Raxis, probes a wide phase space of the jet formation and evolution, ranging from the initial high-momentum-transfer scattering to the hadronization process. The ∆Raxisobservable is presented for 20<$$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{ch}\ \textrm{jet}} $$pTchjet<100 GeV/c, and compared to predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and Herwig 7 event generators. The distributions can also be calculated analytically with a leading hadronization correction related to the non-perturbative component of the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) evolution kernel. Comparisons to analytical predictions at next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy with leading hadronization correction implemented from experimental extractions of the CSS kernel in Drell-Yan measurements are presented. The analytical predictions describe the measured data within 20% in the perturbative regime, with surprising agreement in the non-perturbative regime as well. These results are compatible with the universality of the CSS kernel in the context of jet substructure.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024