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    The presence of a central baryonic potential can have a significant impact on the gravothermal evolution of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) haloes. We extend a semi-analytical fluid model to incorporate the influence of a static baryonic potential and calibrate it using controlled N-body simulations. We construct benchmark scenarios with varying baryon concentrations and different SIDM models, including constant and velocity-dependent self-interacting cross-sections. The presence of the baryonic potential induces changes in SIDM halo properties, including central density, core size, and velocity dispersion, and it accelerates the halo’s evolution in both expansion and collapse phases. Furthermore, we observe a quasi-universality in the gravothermal evolution of SIDM haloes with the baryonic potential, resembling a previously known feature in the absence of the baryons. By appropriately rescaling the physical quantities that characterize the SIDM haloes, the evolution of all our benchmark cases exhibits remarkable similarity. Our findings offer a framework for testing SIDM predictions using observations of galactic systems where baryons play a significant dynamical role.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We analyze circular velocity profiles of seven ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) that are isolated and gas-rich. Assuming that the dark matter halos of these UDGs have a Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile or a Read density profile (which allows for constant-density cores), the inferred halo concentrations are systematically lower than the cosmological median, even as low as −0.6 dex (about 5σaway) in some cases. Alternatively, similar fits can be obtained with a density profile that scales roughly as 1/r2for radii larger than a few kiloparsecs. Both solutions require the radius where the halo circular velocity peaks (Rmax) to be much larger than the median expectation. Surprisingly, we find an overabundance of such large-Rmaxhalos in the IllustrisTNG dark-matter-only simulations compared to the Gaussian expectation. These halos form late and have higher spins compared to median halos of similar masses. The inner densities of the most extreme among these late-forming halos are higher than their NFW counterparts, leading to a ∼1/r2density profile. However, the two well-resolved UDGs in our sample strongly prefer lower dark matter densities in the center than the simulated ones. Comparing to IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations, we also find a tension in getting both lowmore »enough circular velocities and high enough halo mass to accommodate the measurements. Our results indicate that the gas-rich UDGs present a significant challenge for galaxy formation models.

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    We point out an anticorrelation between the central dark matter (DM) densities of the bright Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and their orbital pericenter distances inferred from Gaia data. The dSphs that have not come close to the Milky Way centre (like Fornax, Carina and Sextans) are less dense in DM than those that have come closer (like Draco and Ursa Minor). The same anticorrelation cannot be inferred for the ultrafaint dSphs due to large scatter, while a trend that dSphs with more extended stellar distributions tend to have lower DM densities emerges with ultrafaints. We discuss how these inferences constrain proposed solutions to the Milky Way’s too-big-to-fail problem and provide new clues to decipher the nature of DM.