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  1. null (Ed.)

    The ionospheric scattering of pulses emitted by PSR B0950+08 is measured using the 10-mRadioAstron Space Radio Telescope, the 300-m Arecibo Radio Telescope, and the 14 x 25-m Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at a frequency band between 316 and 332 MHz. We analyse this phenomenon based on a simulated model of the phase difference obtained between antennas that are widely separated by nearly 25 Earth diameters. We present a technique for processing and analysing the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at the ground stations of the ground-space interferometer. This technique allows us to derive almost synchronous half-hour structures of the TEC in the ionosphere at an intercontinental distance between the Arecibo and WSRT stations. We find that the amplitude values of the detected structures are approximately twice as large as the values for the TEC derived in the international reference ionosphere (IRI) project. Furthermore, the values of the TEC outside these structures are almost the same as the corresponding values found by the IRI. According to a preliminary analysis, the detected structures were observed during a geomagnetic storm with a minimum Dst index of ∼75 nT generated by interplanetary disturbances, and may be due to the influence of interplanetary and magnetospheric phenomena on ionospheric disturbances. We show that the Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry provides us with new opportunities to study the TEC, and we demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument to research the ionosphere.

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  6. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  9. Abstract

    A search for decays to invisible particles of Higgs bosons produced in association with a top-antitop quark pair or a vector boson, which both decay to a fully hadronic final state, has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at$${\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}}$$s=13TeVby the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1. The 95% confidence level upper limit set on the branching fraction of the 125$$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$GeVHiggs boson to invisible particles,$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv), is 0.54 (0.39 expected), assuming standard model production cross sections. The results of this analysis are combined with previous$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)searches carried out at$${\sqrt{s}=7}$$s=7, 8, and 13$$\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$TeVin complementary production modes. The combined upper limit at 95% confidence level on$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)is 0.15 (0.08 expected).

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024