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    The ionospheric scattering of pulses emitted by PSR B0950+08 is measured using the 10-mRadioAstron Space Radio Telescope, the 300-m Arecibo Radio Telescope, and the 14 x 25-m Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at a frequency band between 316 and 332 MHz. We analyse this phenomenon based on a simulated model of the phase difference obtained between antennas that are widely separated by nearly 25 Earth diameters. We present a technique for processing and analysing the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at the ground stations of the ground-space interferometer. This technique allows us to derive almost synchronous half-hour structures of the TEC in the ionosphere at an intercontinental distance between the Arecibo and WSRT stations. We find that the amplitude values of the detected structures are approximately twice as large as the values for the TEC derived in the international reference ionosphere (IRI) project. Furthermore, the values of the TEC outside these structures are almost the same as the corresponding values found by the IRI. According to a preliminary analysis, the detected structures were observed during a geomagnetic storm with a minimum Dst index of ∼75 nT generated by interplanetary disturbances, and may be due to the influence of interplanetary and magnetosphericmore »phenomena on ionospheric disturbances. We show that the Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry provides us with new opportunities to study the TEC, and we demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument to research the ionosphere.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  5. Abstract Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, detailed studies of its properties have been ongoing. Besides its mass, its width—related to its lifetime—is an important parameter. One way to determine this quantity is to measure its off-shell production, where the Higgs boson mass is far away from its nominal value, and relating it to its on-shell production, where the mass is close to the nominal value. Here we report evidence for such off-shell contributions to the production cross-section of two Z bosons with data from the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We constrain the total rate of the off-shell Higgs boson contribution beyond the Z boson pair production threshold, relative to its standard model expectation, to the interval [0.0061, 2.0] at the 95% confidence level. The scenario with no off-shell contribution is excluded at a p -value of 0.0003 (3.6 standard deviations). We measure the width of the Higgs boson as $${{{\varGamma }}}_{{{{{{\rm{H}}}}}}}={3.2}_{-1.7}^{+2.4}\,{{{{{\rm{MeV}}}}}}$$ Γ H = 3.2 − 1.7 + 2.4 MeV , in agreement with the standard model expectation of 4.1 MeV. In addition, we set constraints on anomalous Higgs boson couplings to W and Z boson pairs.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023