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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Compositional models represent patterns with hierarchies of meaningful parts and subparts. Their ability to characterize high-order relationships among body parts helps resolve low-level ambiguities in human pose estimation (HPE). However, prior compositional models make unrealistic assumptions on subpart-part relationships, making them incapable to characterize complex compositional patterns. Moreover, state spaces of their higher-level parts can be exponentially large, complicating both inference and learning. To address these issues, this paper introduces a novel framework, termed as Deeply Learned Compositional Model (DLCM), for HPE. It exploits deep neural networks to learn the compositionality of human bodies. This results in a novel networkmore »with a hierarchical compositional architecture and bottom-up/top-down inference stages. In addition, we propose a novel bone-based part representation. It not only compactly encodes orientations, scales and shapes of parts, but also avoids their potentially large state spaces. With significantly lower complexities, our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.« less