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  1. Abstract The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) was launched aboard NASA’s Ionospheric Connection (ICON) Explorer satellite in October 2019 to measure winds and temperatures on the limb in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Temperatures are observed using the molecular oxygen atmospheric band near 763 nm from 90–127 km altitude in the daytime and 90–108 km in the nighttime. Here we describe the measurement approach and methodology of the temperature retrieval, including unique on-orbit operations that allow for a better understanding of the instrument response. The MIGHTI measurement approach for temperatures is distinguished by concurrent observations from two different sensors, allowing for two self-consistent temperature products. We compare the MIGHTI temperatures against existing MLT space-borne and ground-based observations. The MIGHTI temperatures are within 7 K of these observations on average from 90–95 km throughout the day and night. In the daytime on average from 99–105 km, MIGHTI temperatures are higher than coincident observations by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on NASA’s TIMED satellite by 18 K. Because the difference between the MIGHTI and SABER observations is predominantly a constant bias at a given altitude, conclusions of scientific analyses that are based on temperature variations are largely unaffected. 
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  2. Abstract

    Local full diurnal coverage of temperature variations across the turbopause (∼90–115 km altitude) is achieved by combining the nocturnal observations of a Sodium (Na) Doppler lidar on the Utah State University (USU) campus (41.7°N, 248.2°E) and NASA Michelson interferometer for global high‐resolution thermospheric imaging (MIGHTI)/Ionospheric connection explorer (ICON) daytime observations made in the same vicinity. In this study, utilizing this hybrid data set during summer 2020 between June 12th and July 15th, we retrieve the temperature signatures of diurnal and semidiurnal tides in this region. The tidal amplitudes of both components have similar vertical variation with increasing altitude: less than 5 K below ∼98 km but increase considerably above, up to 19 K near 104 km. Both experience significant dissipation near turbopause altitudes, down to ∼12 K up to 113 km for the diurnal tide and ∼13 K for the semidiurnal tide near 110 km. In addition, while the semidiurnal tidal behavior is consistent with the theoretical predictions, the diurnal amplitude is considerably larger than what is expected in the turbopause region. The tidal phase profile shows a dominance of tidal components with a long vertical wavelength (longer than 40 km) for the semidiurnal tide. On the other hand, the diurnal tide demonstrates close to an evanescent wave behavior in the turbopause region, which is absent in the model results and Thermosphere ionosphere mesosphere energetics and dynamics (TIMED)/Sounding of the atmosphere using broadband radiometry (SABER) observations.

     
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  3. Abstract Core-collapse supernovae are a promising potential high-energy neutrino source class. We test for correlation between seven years of IceCube neutrino data and a catalog containing more than 1000 core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and IIP and a sample of stripped-envelope supernovae. We search both for neutrino emission from individual supernovae as well as for combined emission from the whole supernova sample, through a stacking analysis. No significant spatial or temporal correlation of neutrinos with the cataloged supernovae was found. All scenarios were tested against the background expectation and together yield an overall p -value of 93%; therefore, they show consistency with the background only. The derived upper limits on the total energy emitted in neutrinos are 1.7 × 10 48 erg for stripped-envelope supernovae, 2.8 × 10 48 erg for type IIP, and 1.3 × 10 49 erg for type IIn SNe, the latter disfavoring models with optimistic assumptions for neutrino production in interacting supernovae. We conclude that stripped-envelope supernovae and supernovae of type IIn do not contribute more than 14.6% and 33.9%, respectively, to the diffuse neutrino flux in the energy range of about [ 10 3 –10 5 ] GeV, assuming that the neutrino energy spectrum follows a power-law with an index of −2.5. Under the same assumption, we can only constrain the contribution of type IIP SNe to no more than 59.9%. Thus, core-collapse supernovae of types IIn and stripped-envelope supernovae can both be ruled out as the dominant source of the diffuse neutrino flux under the given assumptions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  4. Abstract The D-Egg, an acronym for “Dual optical sensors in an Ellipsoid Glass for Gen2,” is one of the optical modules designed for future extensions of the IceCube experiment at the South Pole. The D-Egg has an elongated-sphere shape to maximize the photon-sensitive effective area while maintaining a narrow diameter to reduce the cost and the time needed for drilling of the deployment holes in the glacial ice for the optical modules at depths up to 2700 m. The D-Egg design is utilized for the IceCube Upgrade, the next stage of the IceCube project also known as IceCube-Gen2 Phase 1, where nearly half of the optical sensors to be deployed are D-Eggs. With two 8-inch high-quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) per module, D-Eggs offer an increased effective area while retaining the successful design of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM). The convolution of the wavelength-dependent effective area and the Cherenkov emission spectrum provides an effective photodetection sensitivity that is 2.8 times larger than that of IceCube DOMs. The signal of each of the two PMTs is digitized using ultra-low-power 14-bit analog-to-digital converters with a sampling frequency of 240 MSPS, enabling a flexible event triggering, as well as seamless and lossless event recording of single-photon signals to multi-photons exceeding 200 photoelectrons within 10 ns. Mass production of D-Eggs has been completed, with 277 out of the 310 D-Eggs produced to be used in the IceCube Upgrade. In this paper, we report the design of the D-Eggs, as well as the sensitivity and the single to multi-photon detection performance of mass-produced D-Eggs measured in a laboratory using the built-in data acquisition system in each D-Egg optical sensor module. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  5. Abstract This paper presents the results of a search for neutrinos that are spatially and temporally coincident with 22 unique, nonrepeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) and one repeating FRB (FRB 121102). FRBs are a rapidly growing class of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical objects that are considered a potential source of high-energy neutrinos. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory’s previous FRB analyses have solely used track events. This search utilizes seven years of IceCube cascade events which are statistically independent of track events. This event selection allows probing of a longer range of extended timescales due to the low background rate. No statistically significant clustering of neutrinos was observed. Upper limits are set on the time-integrated neutrino flux emitted by FRBs for a range of extended time windows. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  6. Abstract Galactic PeV cosmic-ray accelerators (PeVatrons) are Galactic sources theorized to accelerate cosmic rays up to PeV in energy. The accelerated cosmic rays are expected to interact hadronically with nearby ambient gas or the interstellar medium, resulting in γ -rays and neutrinos. Recently, the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) identified 12 γ -ray sources with emissions above 100 TeV, making them candidates for PeVatrons. While at these high energies the Klein–Nishina effect exponentially suppresses leptonic emission from Galactic sources, evidence for neutrino emission would unequivocally confirm hadronic acceleration. Here, we present the results of a search for neutrinos from these γ -ray sources and stacking searches testing for excess neutrino emission from all 12 sources as well as their subcatalogs of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae with 11 yr of track events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. No significant emissions were found. Based on the resulting limits, we place constraints on the fraction of γ -ray flux originating from the hadronic processes in the Crab Nebula and LHAASO J2226+6057. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  7. Abstract Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been considered a possible source of high-energy neutrinos. While no correlations have yet been detected between high-energy neutrinos and GRBs, the recent observation of GRB 221009A—the brightest GRB observed by Fermi-GBM to date and the first one to be observed above an energy of 10 TeV—provides a unique opportunity to test for hadronic emission. In this paper, we leverage the wide energy range of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to search for neutrinos from GRB 221009A. We find no significant deviation from background expectation across event samples ranging from MeV to PeV energies, placing stringent upper limits on the neutrino emission from this source. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  8. Abstract Using data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we searched for high-energy neutrino emission from the gravitational-wave events detected by the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors during their third observing run. We did a low-latency follow-up on the public candidate events released during the detectors’ third observing run and an archival search on the 80 confident events reported in the GWTC-2.1 and GWTC-3 catalogs. An extended search was also conducted for neutrino emission on longer timescales from neutron star containing mergers. Follow-up searches on the candidate optical counterpart of GW190521 were also conducted. We used two methods; an unbinned maximum likelihood analysis and a Bayesian analysis using astrophysical priors, both of which were previously used to search for high-energy neutrino emission from gravitational-wave events. No significant neutrino emission was observed by any analysis, and upper limits were placed on the time-integrated neutrino flux as well as the total isotropic equivalent energy emitted in high-energy neutrinos. 
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