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    We present a new spectroscopic study of the dwarf galaxy Boötes I (Boo I) with data from the Anglo-Australian Telescope and its AAOmega spectrograph together with the Two Degree Field multi-object system. We observed 36 high-probability Boo I stars selected using Gaia Early Data Release 3 proper motions and photometric metallicities from the Pristine survey. Out of those, 27 are found to be Boo I stars, resulting in an excellent success rate of 75 per cent at finding new members. Our analysis uses a new pipeline developed to estimate radial velocities and equivalent widths of the calcium triplet lines from Gaussian and Voigt line profile fits. The metallicities of 16 members are derived, including 3 extremely metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < −3.0), which translates into a success rate of 25 per cent at finding them with the combination of Pristine and Gaia. Using the large spatial extent of our new members that spans up to 4.1 half-light radii and spectroscopy from the literature, we find a systemic velocity gradient of 0.40 ± 0.10 km s−1 arcmin−1 and a small but resolved metallicity gradient of −0.008 ± 0.003 dex arcmin−1. Finally, we show that Boo I is more elongated than previously thought with an ellipticity of ϵ = 0.68 ± 0.15. Its velocity and metallicity gradients as wellmore »as its elongation suggest that Boo I may have been affected by tides, a result supported by direct dynamical modelling.

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  2. Abstract

    Orbital characteristics based on Gaia Early Data Release 3 astrometric parameters are analyzed for ∼4000 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −0.8) compiled from the Best and Brightest survey. Selected as metal-poor candidates based on broadband near- and far-IR photometry, 43% of these stars had medium-resolution (1200 ≲R≲ 2000) validation spectra obtained over a 7 yr campaign from 2014 to 2020 with a variety of telescopes. The remaining stars were chosen based on photometric metallicity determinations from the Huang et al. recalibration of the Sky Mapper Southern Survey. Dynamical clusters of these stars are obtained from the orbital energy and cylindrical actions using theHDBSCANunsupervised learning algorithm. We identify 52 dynamically tagged groups (DTGs) with between five and 21 members; 18 DTGs have at least 10 member stars. Milky Way (MW) substructures such as Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus, the Metal-Weak Thick-Disk, Thamnos, the Splashed Disk, and the Helmi Stream are identified. Associations with MW globular clusters are determined for eight DTGs; no recognized MW dwarf galaxies were associated with any of our DTGs. Previously identified dynamical groups are also associated with our DTGs, with emphasis placed on their structural determination and possible new identifications. Chemically peculiar stars are identified as members of several DTGs, withmore »six DTGs that are associated withr-process-enhanced stars. We demonstrate that the mean carbon andα-element abundances of our DTGs are correlated with their mean metallicity in an understandable manner. Similarly, we find that the mean metallicity, carbon, andα-element abundances are separable into different regions of the mean rotational-velocity space.

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  3. Abstract The S2 stream is a kinematically cold stream that is plunging downwards through the Galactic disc. It may be part of a hotter and more diffuse structure called the Helmi stream. We present a multi-instrument chemical analysis of the stars in the metal-poor S2 stream using both high- and low-resolution spectroscopy, complemented with a re-analysis of the archival data to give a total sample of 62 S2 members. Our high-resolution program provides α-elements (C, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti), iron-peak elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni), n-capture process elements (Sr, Ba) and other elements such as Li, Na, Al, and Sc for a subsample of S2 objects. We report coherent abundance patterns over a large metallicity spread (∼1 dex) confirming that the S2 stream was produced by a disrupted dwarf galaxy. The combination of S2’s α-elements displays a mildly decreasing trend with increasing metallicity which can be tentatively interpreted as a “knee” at [Fe/H]<−2. At the low metallicity end, the n-capture elements in S2 may be dominated by r-process production however several stars are Ba-enhanced, but unusually poor in Sr. Moreover, some of the low-[Fe/H] stars appear to be carbon-enhanced. We interpret the observed abundance patterns with the help ofmore »chemical evolution models that demonstrate the need for modest star-formation efficiency and low wind efficiency confirming that the progenitor of S2 was a primitive dwarf galaxy.« less