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    We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaigns of the changing look AGN NGC 2617 carried out from 2016 until 2022 and covering the wavelength range from the X-ray to the near-IR. The facilities included the telescopes of the SAI MSU, MASTER Global Robotic Net, the 2.3-m WIRO telescope, Swift, and others. We found significant variability at all wavelengths and, specifically, in the intensities and profiles of the broad Balmer lines. We measured time delays of ∼6 d (∼8 d) in the responses of the Hβ (Hα) line to continuum variations. We found the X-ray variations to correlate well with the UV and optical (with a small time delay of a few days for longer wavelengths). The K-band lagged the B band by 14 ± 4 d during the last three seasons, which is significantly shorter than the delays reported previously by the 2016 and 2017–2019 campaigns. Near-IR variability arises from two different emission regions: the outer part of the accretion disc and a more distant dust component. The HK-band variability is governed primarily by dust. The Balmer decrement of the broad-line components is inversely correlated with the UV flux. The change of the object’s type from Sy1 to Sy1.8 was recorded over a period of ∼8 yr. We interpret these changes as a combination of two factors: changes in the accretion rate and dust recovery along the line of sight.

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    We report the results of long-term reverberation mapping campaigns of the nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) NGC 4151, spanning from 1994 to 2022, based on archived observations of the FAST Spectrograph Publicly Archived Programs and our new observations with the 2.3 m telescope at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory. We reduce and calibrate all the spectra in a consistent way, and derive light curves of the broad H β line and 5100 Å continuum. Continuum light curves are also constructed using public archival photometric data to increase sampling cadences. We subtract the host galaxy contamination using Hubble Space Telescope imaging to correct fluxes of the calibrated light curves. Utilizing the long-term archival photometric data, we complete the absolute flux-calibration of the AGN continuum. We find that the H β time delays are correlated with the 5100 Å luminosities as $\tau _{\rm H\beta }\propto L_{5100}^{0.46\pm 0.16}$. This is remarkably consistent with Bentz et al. (2013)’s global size–luminosity relationship of AGNs. Moreover, the data sets for five of the seasons allow us to obtain the velocity-resolved delays of the H β line, showing diverse structures (outflows, inflows, and discs). Combining our results with previous independent measurements, we find the measured dynamics of the H β broad-line region (BLR) are possibly related to the long-term trend of the luminosity. There is also a possible additional ∼1.86 yr time lag between the variation in BLR radius and luminosity. These results suggest that dynamical changes in the BLR may be driven by the effects of radiation pressure.

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  3. Abstract In this third paper of the series reporting on the reverberation mapping campaign of active galactic nuclei with asymmetric H β emission-line profiles, we present results for 15 Palomar–Green quasars using spectra obtained between the end of 2016–2021 May. This campaign combines long time spans with relatively high cadence. For eight objects, both the time lags obtained from the entire light curves and the measurements from individual observing seasons are provided. Reverberation mapping of nine of our targets has been attempted for the first time, while the results for six others can be compared with previous campaigns. We measure the H β time lags over periods of years and estimate their black hole masses. The long duration of the campaign enables us to investigate their broad-line region (BLR) geometry and kinematics for different years by using velocity-resolved lags, which demonstrate signatures of diverse BLR geometry and kinematics. The BLR geometry and kinematics of individual objects are discussed. In this sample, the BLR kinematics of Keplerian/virialized motion and inflow is more common than that of outflow. 
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  4. ABSTRACT We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaigns of the changing look AGN NGC 3516 carried out in 2018 to 2020 covering the wavelength range from the X-ray to the optical. The facilities included the telescopes of the CMO SAI MSU, the 2.3-m WIRO telescope, and the XRT and UVOT of Swift. We found that NGC 3516 brightened to a high state and could be classified as Sy1.5 during the late spring of 2020. We have measured time delays in the responses of the Balmer and He ii λ4686 lines to continuum variations. In the case of the best-characterized broad H β line, the delay to continuum variability is about 17 d in the blue wing and is clearly shorter, 9 d, in the red, which is suggestive of inflow. As the broad lines strengthened, the blue side came to dominate the Balmer lines, resulting in very asymmetric profiles with blueshifted peaks during this high state. During the outburst the X-ray flux reached its maximum on 2020 April 1 and it was the highest value ever observed for NGC 3516 by the Swift observatory. The X-ray hard photon index became softer, ∼1.8 in the maximum on 2020 April 21 compared to the mean ∼0.7 during earlier epochs before 2020. We have found that the UV and optical variations correlated well (with a small time delay of 1–2 d) with the X-ray until the beginning of 2020 April, but later, until the end of 2020 June, these variations were not correlated. We suggest that this fact may be a consequence of partial obscuration by Compton-thick clouds crossing the line of sight. 
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  5. null (Ed.)