skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zavala, Jorge"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We report the detection of the CO(12–11) line emission toward G09-83808 (or H-ATLAS J090045.4+004125), a strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy at z = 6.02, with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. Combining previously detected [O iii] 88 μm, [N ii] 205 μm, and dust continuum at 0.6 mm and 1.5 mm, we investigate the physical properties of the multi-phase interstellar medium in G09-83808. A source-plane reconstruction reveals that the region of the CO(12–11) emission is compact ($R_\mathrm{{e, CO}}=0.49^{+0.29}_{-0.19}\:\mbox{kpc}$) and roughly coincides with that of the dust continuum. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer modeling of CO spectral-line energy distribution reveals that most of the CO(12–11) emission comes from a warm (kinetic temperature of Tkin = 320 ± 170 K) and dense [log (nH2/cm−3) = 5.4 ± 0.6] gas, indicating that the warm and dense molecular gas is concentrated in the central 0.5 kpc region. The luminosity ratio in G09-83808 is estimated to be LCO(12-11)/LCO(6-5) = 1.1 ± 0.2. The high ratio is consistent with those in local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and 6 < z < 7 quasars, the fact of which implies that G09-83808 would be a good target to explore dust-obscured AGNs in the epoch of reionization. In the reconstructed [O iii] 88 μm and [N ii] 205 μm cubes, we also find that a monotonic velocity gradientmore »is extending over the central starburst region by a factor of 2 and that star-forming sub-components exist. High-resolution observations of bright [C ii] 158 μm line emissions will enable us to characterize the kinematics of a possible rotating disk and the nature of the sub-components.

    « less
  2. Abstract The 2 mm Mapping Obscuration to Reionization with ALMA (MORA) Survey was designed to detect high-redshift ( z ≳ 4), massive, dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). Here we present two likely high-redshift sources, identified in the survey, whose physical characteristics are consistent with a class of optical/near-infrared (OIR)-invisible DSFGs found elsewhere in the literature. We first perform a rigorous analysis of all available photometric data to fit spectral energy distributions and estimate redshifts before deriving physical properties based on our findings. Our results suggest the two galaxies, called MORA-5 and MORA-9, represent two extremes of the “OIR-dark” class of DSFGs. MORA-5 ( z phot = 4.3 − 1.3 + 1.5 ) is a significantly more active starburst with a star formation rate (SFR) of 830 − 190 + 340 M ⊙ yr −1 compared to MORA-9 ( z phot = 4.3 − 1.0 + 1.3 ), whose SFR is a modest 200 − 60 + 250 M ⊙ yr −1 . Based on the stellar masses ( M ⋆ ≈ 10 10−11 M ⊙ ), space density ( n ∼ (5 ± 2) × 10 −6 Mpc −3 , which incorporates two other spectroscopically confirmed OIR-dark DSFGs in the MORAmore »sample at z = 4.6 and z = 5.9), and gas depletion timescales (<1 Gyr) of these sources, we find evidence supporting the theory that OIR-dark DSFGs are the progenitors of recently discovered 3 < z < 4 massive quiescent galaxies.« less
  3. Abstract

    We present rest-frame optical emission-line flux ratio measurements for fivez> 5 galaxies observed by the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) in the SMACS 0723 Early Release Observations. We add several quality-control and post-processing steps to the NIRSpec pipeline reduction products in order to ensure reliablerelativeflux calibration of emission lines that are closely separated in wavelength, despite the uncertainabsolutespectrophotometry of the current version of the reductions. Compared toz∼ 3 galaxies in the literature, thez> 5 galaxies have similar [Oiii]λ5008/Hβratios, similar [Oiii]λ4364/Hγratios, and higher (∼0.5 dex) [NeIII]λ3870/[OII]λ3728 ratios. We compare the observations to MAPPINGS V photoionization models and find that the measured [NeIII]λ3870/[OII]λ3728, [Oiii]λ4364/Hγ, and [Oiii]λ5008/Hβemission-line ratios are consistent with an interstellar medium (ISM) that has very high ionization (log(Q)89, units of cm s−1), low metallicity (Z/Z≲ 0.2), and very high pressure (log(P/k)89, units of cm−3). The combination of [Oiii]λ4364/Hγand [Oiii]λ(4960 + 5008)/Hβline ratios indicate very high electron temperatures of4.1<log(Te/K)<4.4, further implying metallicities ofZ/Z≲ 0.2 with the application of low-redshift calibrations for “Te-based” metallicities. These observations represent a tantalizing new view of the physical conditions of the ISM in galaxies atmore »cosmic dawn.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    We present the characteristics of 2 mm selected sources from the largest Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) blank-field contiguous survey conducted to date, the Mapping Obscuration to Reionization with ALMA (MORA) survey covering 184 arcmin2at 2 mm. Twelve of 13 detections above 5σare attributed to emission from galaxies, 11 of which are dominated by cold dust emission. These sources have a median redshift ofz2mm=3.60.3+0.4primarily based on optical/near-infrared photometric redshifts with some spectroscopic redshifts, with 77% ± 11% of sources atz> 3 and 38% ± 12% of sources atz> 4. This implies that 2 mm selection is an efficient method for identifying the highest-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). Lower-redshift DSFGs (z< 3) are far more numerous than those atz> 3 yet are likely to drop out at 2 mm. MORA shows that DSFGs with star formation rates in excess of 300Myr−1and a relative rarity of ∼10−5Mpc−3contribute ∼30% to the integrated star formation rate density at 3 <z< 6. The volume density of 2 mm selected DSFGs is consistent with predictions from some cosmological simulations and is similar to the volume density of their hypothesized descendants: massive, quiescent galaxies atz> 2. Analysis of MORA sources’more »spectral energy distributions hint at steeper empirically measured dust emissivity indices than reported in typical literature studies, withβ=2.20.4+0.5. The MORA survey represents an important step in taking census of obscured star formation in the universe’s first few billion years, but larger area 2 mm surveys are needed to more fully characterize this rare population and push to the detection of the universe’s first dusty galaxies.

    « less