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  1. This paper is the first to analyze the security of split manufacturing using machine learning (ML), based on data collected from layouts provided by industry, with eight routing metal layers and significant variation in wire size and routing congestion across the layers. Many types of layout features are considered in our ML model, including those obtained from placement, routing, and cell sizes. Since the runtime cost of our basic ML procedure becomes prohibitively large for lower layers, we propose novel techniques to make it scalable with little sacrifice in the effectiveness of the attack. Moreover, we further improve the performancemore »in the top routing layer by making use of higher quality training samples and by exploiting the routing convention. We also propose a validation-based proximity attack procedure, which generally outperforms our recent prior work. In the experiments, we analyze the ranking of the features used in our ML model and show how features vary in importance when moving to the lower layers. We provide comprehensive evaluation and comparison of our model with different configurations and demonstrate dramatically better performance of attacks compared to the prior work.« less