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  1. Abstract Background Firefighters have increased cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to the general population, and are exposed to multiple products of combustion including known and suspected carcinogens. Objective The study objective was to quantify fire response exposures by role and self-reported exposure risks. Methods Urinary hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH-OHs) were measured at baseline and 2–4 h after structural fires and post-fire surveys were collected. Results Baseline urine samples were collected from 242 firefighters. Of these, 141 responded to at least one of 15 structural fires and provided a post-fire urine. Compared with baseline measurements, the mean fold change of post-fire urinary PAH-OHs increased similarly across roles, including captains (2.05 (95% CI 1.59–2.65)), engineers (2.10 (95% CI 1.47–3.05)), firefighters (2.83 (95% CI 2.14–3.71)), and paramedics (1.84 (95% CI 1.33–2.60)). Interior responses, smoke odor on skin, and lack of recent laundering or changing of hoods were significantly associated with increased post-fire urinary PAH-OHs. Significance Ambient smoke from the fire represents an exposure hazard for all individuals on the fireground; engineers and paramedics in particular may not be aware of the extent of their exposure. Post-fire surveys identified specific risks associated with increased exposure. 
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  2. Abstract

    In metagenomic studies, testing the association between microbiome composition and clinical outcomes translates to testing the nullity of variance components. Motivated by a lung human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbiome project, we study longitudinal microbiome data by using variance component models with more than two variance components. Current testing strategies only apply to models with exactly two variance components and when sample sizes are large. Therefore, they are not applicable to longitudinal microbiome studies. In this paper, we propose exact tests (score test, likelihood ratio test, and restricted likelihood ratio test) to (a) test the association of the overall microbiome composition in a longitudinal design and (b) detect the association of one specific microbiome cluster while adjusting for the effects from related clusters. Our approach combines the exact tests for null hypothesis with a single variance component with a strategy of reducing multiple variance components to a single one. Simulation studies demonstrate that our method has a correct type I error rate and superior power compared to existing methods at small sample sizes and weak signals. Finally, we apply our method to a longitudinal pulmonary microbiome study of HIV‐infected patients and reveal two interesting generaPrevotellaandVeillonellaassociated with forced vital capacity. Our findings shed light on the impact of the lung microbiome on HIV complexities. The method is implemented in the open‐source, high‐performance computing languageJuliaand is freely available at

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