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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023

    One widely discussed mechanism to produce highly coherent radio emission of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is coherent emission by bunches, either via curvature radiation or inverse Compton scattering (ICS). It has been suggested that the plasma oscillation effect can significantly suppress coherent emission power by bunches. We examine this criticism in this paper. The suppression factor formalism was derived within the context of radio pulsars in which radio waves are in the low-amplitude, linear regime and cannot directly be applied to the large-amplitude, non-linear regime relevant for FRBs. Even if one applies this linear treatment, plasma suppression is not important for two physical reasons. First, for an efficient radiation mechanism, such as ICS, the required plasma density is not high so that a high-density plasma may not exist. Secondly, both bunched coherent mechanisms demand that a large global parallel electric field (E∥) must exist in the emission region in order to continuously inject energy to the bunches to power an FRB. In order to produce typical FRB duration via coherent curvature or ICS radiation, a parallel electric field must be present to balance the acceleration and radiation back reaction. The plasma suppression factor should be modified with the existencemore »of E∥. We show that the correction factor for curvature radiation, fcur, increases with E∥ and becomes 1 when E∥ reaches the radiation-reaction-limited regime. We conclude that the plasma suppression effect can be ignored for realistic FRB emission models invoking bunched coherent radio emission.

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  3. Abstract

    The detailed information on the surface structure and binding sites of oxide nanomaterials is crucial to understand the adsorption and catalytic processes and thus the key to develop better materials for related applications. However, experimental methods to reveal this information remain scarce. Here we show that17O solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used to identify specific surface sites active for CO2adsorption on MgO nanosheets. Two 3-coordinated bare surface oxygen sites, resonating at 39 and 42 ppm, are observed, but only the latter is involved in CO2adsorption. Double resonance NMR and density functional theory (DFT) calculations results prove that the difference between the two species is the close proximity to H, and CO2does not bind to the oxygen ions with a shorter O···H distance of approx. 3.0 Å. Extensions of this approach to explore adsorption processes on other oxide materials can be readily envisaged.

  4. Abstract

    The B chromosome of maize undergoes nondisjunction at the second pollen mitosis as part of its accumulation mechanism. Previous work identified 9-Bic-1 (9-B inactivated centromere-1), which comprises an epigenetically silenced B chromosome centromere that was translocated to the short arm of chromosome 9(9S). This chromosome is stable in isolation, but when normal B chromosomes are added to the genotype, it will attempt to undergo nondisjunction during the second pollen mitosis and usually fractures the chromosome in 9S. These broken chromosomes allow a test of whether the inactive centromere is reactivated or whether a de novo centromere is formed elsewhere on the chromosome to allow recovery of fragments. Breakpoint determination on the B chromosome and chromosome 9 showed that mini chromosome B1104 has the same breakpoint as 9-Bic-1 in the B centromere region and includes a portion of 9S. CENH3 binding was found on the B centromere region and on 9S, suggesting both centromere reactivation and de novo centromere formation. Another mini chromosome, B496, showed evidence of rearrangement, but it also only showed evidence for a de novo centromere. Other mini chromosome fragments recovered were directly derived from the B chromosome with breakpoints concentrated near the centromeric knob region, whichmore »suggests that the B chromosome is broken at a low frequency due to the failure of the sister chromatids to separate at the second pollen mitosis. Our results indicate that both reactivation and de novo centromere formation could occur on fragments derived from the progenitor possessing an inactive centromere.

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  5. Purpose There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were developed for other traditional manufacturing methods involving considerably different physics. Process optimization to determine processing recipes for newly developed materials is expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of the current work is to use a systematic printability assessment framework developed by the co-authors to determine windows of processing parameters to print defect-free parts from a binary nickel-niobium alloy (NiNb5) using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal AM. Design/methodology/approach The printability assessment framework integrates analytical thermal modeling, uncertainty quantification and experimental characterization to determine processing windows for NiNb5 in an accelerated fashion. Test coupons and mechanical test samples were fabricated on a ProX 200 commercial LPBF system. A series of density, microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted to validate the proposed framework. Findings Near fully-dense parts with more than 99% density were successfully printed using the proposed framework. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of as-printed parts showed low variability, good tensile strength of up to 662 MPa and tensile ductility 51% higher than what has been reported in the literature. Originality/value Although many literature studies investigatemore »process optimization for metal AM, there is a lack of a systematic printability assessment framework to determine manufacturing process parameters for newly designed AM materials in an accelerated fashion. Moreover, the majority of existing process optimization approaches involve either time- and cost-intensive experimental campaigns or require the use of proprietary computational materials codes. Through the use of a readily accessible analytical thermal model coupled with statistical calibration and uncertainty quantification techniques, the proposed framework achieves both efficiency and accessibility to the user. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that following this framework results in printed parts with low degrees of variability in their mechanical properties.« less
  6. ABSTRACT The discovery of a fast radio burst (FRB) in our Galaxy associated with a magnetar (neutron star with strong magnetic field) has provided a critical piece of information to help us finally understand these enigmatic transients. We show that the volumetric rate of Galactic-FRB like events is consistent with the faint end of the cosmological FRB rate, and hence they most likely belong to the same class of transients. The Galactic FRB had an accompanying X-ray burst, but many X-ray bursts from the same object had no radio counterpart. Their relative rates suggest that for every FRB there are roughly 102–103 X-ray bursts. The radio light curve of the Galactic FRB had two spikes, separated by 30 ms in the 400–800 MHz frequency band. This is an important clue and highly constraining of the class of models where the radio emission is produced outside the light cylinder of the magnetar. We suggest that magnetic disturbances close to the magnetar surface propagate to a distance of a few tens of neutron star radii where they damp and produce radio emission. The coincident hard X-ray spikes associated with the two FRB pulses seen in this burst and the flux ratio between the twomore »frequency bands can be understood in this scenario. This model provides a unified picture for faint bursts like the Galactic FRB as well as the bright events seen at cosmological distances.« less
  7. Abstract We present the localization and host galaxies of one repeating and two apparently nonrepeating fast radio bursts (FRBs). FRB 20180301A was detected and localized with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.3304. FRB20191228A and FRB20200906A were detected and localized by the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to host galaxies at z = 0.2430 and z = 0.3688, respectively. We combine these with 13 other well-localized FRBs in the literature, and analyze the host galaxy properties. We find no significant differences in the host properties of repeating and apparently nonrepeating FRBs. FRB hosts are moderately star forming, with masses slightly offset from the star-forming main sequence. Star formation and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region emission are major sources of ionization in FRB host galaxies, with the former dominant in repeating FRB hosts. FRB hosts do not track stellar mass and star formation as seen in field galaxies (more than 95% confidence). FRBs are rare in massive red galaxies, suggesting that progenitor formation channels are not solely dominated by delayed channels which lag star formation by gigayears. The global properties of FRB hosts are indistinguishable from core-collapse supernovae and short gamma-ray bursts hosts, andmore »the spatial offset (from galaxy centers) of FRBs is mostly inconsistent with that of the Galactic neutron star population (95% confidence). The spatial offsets of FRBs (normalized to the galaxy effective radius) also differ from those of globular clusters in late- and early-type galaxies with 95% confidence.« less