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  1. Electro-optic (EO) transduction of weak radio frequency (RF) and millimeter-wave signals, such as those received by an antenna, onto laser sidebands for processing in the optical domain requires efficient EO modulators. Microrings offer spatial density and efficiency advantages over Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs), but conventional single-ring modulators suffer a fundamental trade-off between resonantly enhanced conversion efficiency and the RF carrier frequency that it can accommodate. Dual-cavity “photonic molecule” modulators resolve this trade-off, allowing high efficiency independent of the RF carrier frequency by providing separate resonant supermodes to enhance the laser local oscillator (LO) and the narrowband RF-detuned sideband. However, the RF frequency is fixed at design time by geometry, with efficiency dropping quickly for RF carriers away from the design value. We propose a novel, to the best of our knowledge, triple-cavity configuration with an off-resonant middle ring acting as an effective tunable coupler between two active modulator cavities. This configuration provides wideband tunability of the target RF carrier while maintaining efficient sideband conversion. When the middle ring is passive (highQ), this configuration provides wide RF tunability with no efficiency penalty over the fixed dual-cavity case and could become an important building block for future RF/mm-wave photonic integrated circuits (PICs).

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 4, 2025
  3. Flight-time failures of small Uncrewed Aerial Systems (sUAS) can have a severe impact on people or the environment. Therefore, sUAS applications must be thoroughly evaluated and tested to ensure their adherence to specified requirements, and safe behavior under real-world conditions, such as poor weather, wireless interference, and satellite failure. However, current simulation environments for autonomous vehicles, including sUAS, provide limited support for validating their behavior in diverse environmental contexts and moreover, lack a test harness to facilitate structured testing based on system-level requirements. We address these shortcomings by eliciting and specifying requirements for an sUAS testing and simulation platform, and developing and deploying it. The constructed platform, DroneWorld (\DW), allows sUAS developers to define the operating context, configure multi-sUAS mission requirements, specify safety properties, and deploy their own custom sUAS applications in a high-fidelity 3D environment. The DroneWorld Monitoring system collects runtime data from sUAS and the environment, analyzes compliance with safety properties, and captures violations. We report on two case studies in which we used our platform prior to real-world sUAS deployments, in order to evaluate sUAS mission behavior in various environmental contexts. Furthermore, we conducted a study with developers and found that DroneWorld simplifies the process of specifying requirements-driven test scenarios and analyzing acceptance test results. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. We report on the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities with the smallest footprint, largest intrinsic quality factor, and smallest mode volume to be demonstrated to date in a monolithic CMOS platform. Two types of cavities were designed, with opposite spatial mode symmetries. The opposite mode symmetry, combined with evanescent coupling, allows the nanobeam cavities to be used in reflectionless topologies, desirable in complex photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The devices were implemented and fabricated in a 45 nm monolithic electronics–photonics CMOS platform optimized for silicon photonics (GlobalFoundries 45CLO) and do not require any post-processing. Quality factors exceeding 100 000 were measured for both devices, the highest, to the best of our knowledge, among fully cladded PhC nanobeam cavities in any silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Additionally, the ability of the cavities to confine light into small mode volumes, of the order of (λ/n)3, was confirmed experimentally using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). These types of cavities are an important step toward realizing ultra-low energy active devices required for the next generation of integrated optical links beyond the current microring resonator-based links and other CMOS PICs.

     
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  5. We report a demonstration of a 3-channel wavelength-selective switch with individual channel bandwidths of 2 GHz and drop port loss below 1 dB, paving the way for efficient spectrum utilization in quantum networking applications.

     
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  6. We demonstrate device field characterization using NSOM collection and interaction measurement modes via the backside buried-oxide of large scale photonic circuits fabricated in monolithic electronics-photonics CMOS platforms (here a microdisk resonator) post-processed using flip-chip substrate-removal. 
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  7. Grating coupler devices provide efficient, foundry-compatible vertical fiber-to-chip coupling solutions in integrated photonic platforms. However, standard grating coupler designs are highly polarization sensitive, which hinders their adoption. We present a new, to the best of our knowledge, type of 1D polarization-insensitive grating coupler (PIGC) that is based on a zero-birefringence subwavelength “corelet” waveguide. We demonstrate a PIGC for coupling in the telecommunications O-band in a 45-nm-node monolithic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS electronic-photonic platform, with measured insertion losses of 6.7 and 6.1 dB to transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations, respectively, and a ±1-dB polarization dependent loss bandwidth of 73 nm.

     
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  8. Abstract The naked mole-rat (NMR) is an exceptionally long-lived rodent that shows no increase of mortality with age, defining it as a demographically non-aging mammal. Here, we perform bisulfite sequencing of the blood of > 100 NMRs, assessing > 3 million common CpG sites. Unsupervised clustering based on sites whose methylation correlates with age reveals an age-related methylome remodeling, and we also observe a methylome information loss, suggesting that NMRs age. We develop an epigenetic aging clock that accurately predicts the NMR age. We show that these animals age much slower than mice and much faster than humans, consistent with their known maximum lifespans. Interestingly, patterns of age-related changes of clock sites in Tert and Prpf19 differ between NMRs and mice, but there are also sites conserved between the two species. Together, the data indicate that NMRs, like other mammals, epigenetically age even in the absence of demographic aging of this species. 
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  9. Optical phased arrays (OPAs) which beam-steer in two dimensions (2D) are currently limited to grating row spacings well above a half wavelength. This gives rise to grating lobes along one axis which limit the field of view (FOV), introduce return signal ambiguity, and reduce the optical efficiency in lidar applications. We demonstrate a Vernier transceiver scheme which uses paired transmit and receive phased arrays with different row periodicities, leading to mismatched grating lobe angular spacings and only a single aligned pair of transmit and receive lobes. This permits a return signal from a target in the desired lobe to be efficiently coupled back into the receive OPA while back-scatter from the other grating lobes is rejected, removing the ambiguity. Our proposal goes beyond previously considered Vernier schemes in other domains like RF and sound, to enable adynamic Vernierwhere all beam directions are simultaneously Vernier aligned, and allow ultra-fast scanning, or multi-beam, operation with Vernier lobe suppression. We analyze two variants of grating lobe suppressing beam-steering configurations, one of which eliminates the FOV limitation, and find the conditions for optimal lobe suppression. We present the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental demonstration of an OPA Vernier transceiver, including grating lobe suppression of 6.4 dB and beam steering across 5.5°. The demonstration is based on a pair of 2D-wavelength-steered serpentine OPAs. These results address the pervasive issue of grating lobes in integrated photonic lidar schemes, opening the way to larger FOVs and reduced complexity 2D beam-steering designs.

     
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