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  4. Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a vital behavior for many pelagic marine fauna. Locomotory tactics that animals use during DVM define the metabolic costs of migrations and influence the risk of detection and capture by predators, yet, for squids, there is little understanding of the fine-scale movements and potential variability during these migrations. Vertical migratory behaviors of 5 veined squid Loligo forbesii were investigated with biologging tags (ITags) off the Azores Islands (central North Atlantic). Diel movements ranged from 400 to 5 m and were aligned with sunset and sunrise. During ascent periods, 2 squid exhibited cyclic climb-and-glide movements using primarily jet propulsion, while 3 squid ascended more continuously and at a lower vertical speed using mostly a finning gait. Descents for all 5 squid were consistently more rapid and direct. While all squid swam in both arms-first and mantle-first directions during DVM, mantle-first swimming was more common during upward movements, particularly at vertical speeds greater than 25 cm s -1 . The in situ variability of animal posture, swim direction, and gait use revealed behavioral flexibility interpreted as energy conservation, prey capture, and predator avoidance. 
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  5. Abstract The BaZrO 3 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (BZO/YBCO) interface has been found to affect the vortex pinning efficiency of one-dimensional artificial pinning centers (1D-APC) of BZO. A defective BZO/YBCO interface due to a lattice mismatch of ∼7.7% has been blamed for the reduced pinning efficiency. Recently, we have shown incorporating Ca 0.3 Y 0.7 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x spacer layers in BZO/YBCO nanocomposite film in multilayer (ML) format can lead to a reduced lattice mismatch ∼1.4% through the enlargement of lattice constant of YBCO via Ca diffusion and partial Ca/Cu replacement on Cu-O planes. In this work, the effect of this interface engineering on the BZO 1D-APC pinning efficiency is investigated at temperatures of 65-81 K through a comparison between 2 and 6 vol.% BZO/YBCO ML samples with their single-layer (SL) counterparts. An overall higher pinning force ( F p ) density has been observed on the ML samples as compared to their SL counterparts. Specifically, the peak value of F p ( F p,max ) for the 6% BZO/YBCO ML film is about ∼ 4 times of that of its SL counterpart at 65 K. In addition, the location of the F p,max ( B max ) in the ML samples shifts to higher values as a consequence of enhanced pinning. For the 6% BZO/YBCO ML sample, a much smaller “plateau-like” decrease of the B max with increasing temperature was observed, which is in contrast to approximately linear decrease of B max with increasing temperature in the 6% SL film. This result indicates the importance of restoring the BZO/YBCO interface quality for better pinning efficiency of BZO 1D-APCs especially at higher BZO doping concentration. 
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  6. Abstract We have performed sound velocity and unit cell volume measurements of three synthetic, ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples up to 50 GPa using Brillouin spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The samples are characterized by average grain sizes of 90 nm, 93 nm and 179 nm (hereinafter referred to as samples Gr90, Gr93, and Gr179, respectively). The experimentally determined sound velocities and elastic properties of Gr179 sample are comparable with previous measurements, but slightly higher than those of Gr90 and Gr93 under ambient conditions. However, the differences diminish with increasing pressure, and the velocity crossover eventually takes place at approximately 20–30 GPa. The X-ray diffraction peaks of the ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples significantly broaden between 15–40 GPa, especially for Gr179. The velocity or elasticity crossover observed at pressures over 30 GPa might be explained by different grain size reduction and/or inhomogeneous strain within the individual grains for the three grossular samples, which is supported by both the pressure-induced peak broadening observed in the X-ray diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy observations. The elastic behavior of ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline silicates, in this case, grossular, is both grain size and pressure dependent. 
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