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  1. Abstract

    Control and understanding of ensembles of skyrmions is important for realization of future technologies. In particular, the order-disorder transition associated with the 2D lattice of magnetic skyrmions can have significant implications for transport and other dynamic functionalities. To date, skyrmion ensembles have been primarily studied in bulk crystals, or as isolated skyrmions in thin film devices. Here, we investigate the condensation of the skyrmion phase at room temperature and zero field in a polar, van der Waals magnet. We demonstrate that we can engineer an ordered skyrmion crystal through structural confinement on theμm scale, showing control over this order-disorder transition on scales relevant for device applications.

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  2. Abstract Reducing the switching energy of ferroelectric thin films remains an important goal in the pursuit of ultralow-power ferroelectric memory and logic devices. Here, we elucidate the fundamental role of lattice dynamics in ferroelectric switching by studying both freestanding bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) membranes and films clamped to a substrate. We observe a distinct evolution of the ferroelectric domain pattern, from striped, 71° ferroelastic domains (spacing of ~100 nm) in clamped BiFeO 3 films, to large (10’s of micrometers) 180° domains in freestanding films. By removing the constraints imposed by mechanical clamping from the substrate, we can realize a ~40% reduction of the switching voltage and a consequent ~60% improvement in the switching speed. Our findings highlight the importance of a dynamic clamping process occurring during switching, which impacts strain, ferroelectric, and ferrodistortive order parameters and plays a critical role in setting the energetics and dynamics of ferroelectric switching. 
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  3. The AA′-stacked FCGT is a new class of room-temperature Néel-type skyrmion hosting material with C 6v symmetry. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Membrane permeabilities to CO2and HCO3constrain the function of CO2concentrating mechanisms that algae use to supply inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. In diatoms and green algae, plasma membranes are moderately to highly permeable to CO2but effectively impermeable to HCO3. Here, CO2and HCO3membrane permeabilities were measured using an18O‐exchange technique on two species of haptophyte algae,Emiliania huxleyiandCalcidiscus leptoporus, which showed that the plasma membranes of these species are also highly permeable to CO2(0.006–0.02 cm · s−1) but minimally permeable to HCO3. Increased temperature and CO2generally increased CO2membrane permeabilities in both species, possibly due to changes in lipid composition or CO2channel proteins. Changes in CO2membrane permeabilities showed no association with the density of calcium carbonate coccoliths surrounding the cell, which could potentially impede passage of compounds. Haptophyte plasma‐membrane permeabilities to CO2were somewhat lower than those of diatoms but generally higher than membrane permeabilities of green algae. One caveat of these measurements is that the model used to interpret18O‐exchange data assumes that carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes18O‐exchange, is homogeneously distributed in the cell. The implications of this assumption were tested using a two‐compartment model with an inhomogeneous distribution of carbonic anhydrase to simulate18O‐exchange data and then inferring plasma‐membrane CO2permeabilities from the simulated data. This analysis showed that the inferred plasma‐membrane CO2permeabilities are minimal estimates but should be quite accurate under most conditions.

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